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Table 1 Mean and standard deviation values for peak lumbar and pelvis kinematics for those with and without pars abnormalities

From: Effects of Lumbar Spine Abnormality and Serve Types on Lumbar Kinematics in Elite Adolescent Tennis Players

  Pars No pars
  Flat Kick Flat Kick
  Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male
Drive phase
 Lumbar extension (°) − 4.9 ± 4.5 − 14.4 ± 9.0 − 5.4 ± 3.2 − 14.7 ± 9.6 − 9.7 ± 8.7 − 7.9 ± 8.4 − 9.6 ± 8.2 − 7.8 ± 9.3
 Lumbar right lateral flexion (°) − 6.1 ± 3.3 − 3.9 ± 5.3 − 6.3 ± 2.6 − 3.9 ± 4.7 − 1.8 ± 4.3 0.9 ± 3.8 − 2.6 ± 4.2 1.5 ± 4.1
 Lumbar right axial rotation (°) 0.5 ± 2.8 − 1.1 ± 2.0 0.7 ± 3.1 − 1.3 ± 2.1 0.6 ± 2.1 − 0.2 ± 1.8 0.9 ± 2.2 − 0.4 ± 2.0
 Trunk extension (°) − 43.9 ± 1.0 − 20.5 ± 6.2 − 41.9 ± 1.5 − 21.1 ± 6.1 − 22.4 ± 13.7 − 25.0 ± 7.0 − 22.9 ± 15.8 − 26.9 ± 8.4
 Trunk right lateral flexion (°) 20.4 ± 9.1 25.1 ± 11.0 21.2 ± 8.5 24.7 ± 12.0 29.2 ± 7.5 26.2 ± 9.7 29 ± 8.1 26.8 ± 10.3
 Trunk right axial rotation (°) − 31.6 ± 5.1 − 25.5 ± 15.9 − 28.5 ± 3.2 − 24.1 ± 14.9 − 23.3 ± 9.0 − 25.1 ± 10.7 − 23.8 ± 10.2 − 22.4 ± 11.4
 Pelvis right rotation (°) − 74.7 ± 4.1 − 94.9 ± 26.3 − 75.6 ± 7.8 − 105.3 ± 24.4 − 96 ± 13.7 − 102.5 ± 12.1 − 97.4 ± 15.2 − 109.9 ± 14.5
 Pelvis posterior tilt (°)^ 7.7 ± 1.5 − 8.6 ± 4.7 4.6 ± 3.7 − 10.3 ± 5.1 3.1 ± 5.7 − 5.5 ± 5.0 1.5 ± 6.1 − 7 ± 4.6
 Pelvis obliquity (right down) (°) 3.3 ± 2.8 8.5 ± 4.0 3.6 ± 1.1 9.3 ± 4.1 7.1 ± 3.5 9.5 ± 7.0 7.1 ± 2.6 10.4 ± 8.2
 Lumbar extension angular velocity (°/s) − 189.5 ± 69.0 − 179.8 ± 112.8 − 156.8 ± 31.6 − 190.9 ± 134.2 − 253.3 ± 106.2 − 150.1 ± 42 − 237.4 ± 117.2 − 186.3 ± 76.6
 Lumbar right lateral flexion angular velocity (°/s) 183.9 ± 22.1 200.5 ± 137.9 177 ± 27.8 203.5 ± 203.0 224.5 ± 60.1 146.8 ± 42.1 210.3 ± 61.7 165 ± 61.6
 Lumbar right axial rotation angular velocity (°/s) 58.4 ± 36.5 54.4 ± 29.1 50.2 ± 26.9 54.8 ± 33.8 62.8 ± 31.9 59.3 ± 27.1 63.8 ± 35.5 53.1 ± 19.9
Forward-swing phase
 Lumbar flexion (°)* 10.4 ± 1.4 2.6 ± 3.7 11 ± 1.7 3.3 ± 3.3 5.8 ± 4.6 6.3 ± 4.4 7.6 ± 4.7 6.6 ± 4.4
 Lumbar left lateral flexion (°) − 19 ± 1.5 − 16.1 ± 5.2 − 18.8 ± 2.4 − 16.8 ± 5.2 − 16.9 ± 6.2 − 11.4 ± 5.2 − 17.3 ± 5.5 − 10.7 ± 5.2
 Lumbar left axial rotation (°) − 1.6 ± 2.4 − 1.5 ± 2.3 − 2.1 ± 1.7 − 1.7 ± 2.4 − 0.7 ± 2.3 − 1 ± 1.7 − 1 ± 2.4 − 1.3 ± 2.1
 Trunk flexion (°) 5 ± 10.3 16 ± 8.0 5.7 ± 5.2 15.6 ± 12.1 7 ± 19.5 6.6 ± 12.9 13.5 ± 17.5 5.9 ± 11.3
 Trunk left lateral flexion (°) − 37 ± 10.6 − 38.5 ± 8.0 − 36.5 ± 9.6 − 40.1 ± 8.6 − 36.1 ± 8.9 − 35.4 ± 11.7 − 34.6 ± 10.7 − 37 ± 8.8
 Trunk left axial rotation (°) − 9 ± 3.2 − 9.5 ± 8.4 − 7.7 ± 5.7 − 11.6 ± 7.6 − 6.4 ± 13.4 − 6.1 ± 10.4 − 10.2 ± 12.2 − 6.5 ± 8.5
 Pelvis left rotation (°) − 4.2 ± 12.5 − 9.2 ± 14.5 − 8.8 ± 14.7 − 24.5 ± 16.5 − 2.3 ± 10.2 − 4.8 ± 12.8 − 13.5 ± 10.8 − 28.7 ± 20.7
 Pelvis anterior tilt (°)* 31.4 ± 6.1 22.7 ± 7.9 28.7 ± 8.3 18.4 ± 8.4 33.7 ± 3.6 28.5 ± 9.9 27.7 ± 6.9 22.6 ± 10.5
 Pelvis obliquity (left down) (°)* − 27 ± 4.1 − 31.8 ± 6.7 − 30.6 ± 1.6 − 33.2 ± 7.1 − 21.6 ± 9.4 − 27.9 ± 3.4 − 25.9 ± 6.5 − 32 ± 5.0
 Lumbar flexion angular velocity (°/s) 258.9 ± 44.8 289.5 ± 132.6 268.6 ± 57.7 316.4 ± 152.4 463 ± 360.1 241.3 ± 103.2 335.3 ± 72.8 227.3 ± 75.1
 Lumbar left lateral flexion angular velocity (°/s) − 177.4 ± 78.6 − 124.1 ± 91.0 − 218.5 ± 71.6 − 162.7 ± 130.1 − 198.8 ± 88.8 − 152.1 ± 44.2 − 204 ± 113.9 − 134.4 ± 32.9
 Lumbar left axial rotation angular velocity (°/s) − 84.3 ± 26.7 − 93.9 ± 56.0 − 90.5 ± 40.4 − 84.7 ± 56.3 − 125.9 ± 129.4 − 79.9 ± 75.0 − 83.7 ± 33.1 − 73.9 ± 41.8
  1. *Significant main effect for serve type (p< 0.01)
  2. ^Significant main effect for sex (p< 0.01)
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