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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies (n = 46) documenting injuries to netball players

From: Injuries in Netball-A Systematic Review

Study Country of origin Sample Age (years)
Mean ± SD or range
Competition level Data collection period Data collection methods Injury data collected
Prospective season competition
Attenborough et al. 2017 [25] AUS 94 participants
11 ankle injuries
21.5 ± 6.3 Elite/Inter-district/recreational (club) 1 × season for a player Elite/Inter-district reports (injury/exposure) by team physio/club director; Recreational self-report; Follow-up by phone; Preseason data collection in one session. Ankle only
Elphinston et al. 2006 [26] UK 17 participants
22 vs 4 injuries
25.9 ± 2.6 Elite ~ 2 × seasons Physiotherapy assessment. All injuries
Ferreira et al. 2010 [27] SA 25 participants
46 injuries
18-23 Elite 1 × season Weekly physiotherapy clinic assessment. All injuries
Finch et al. 2002 [22] AUS 247 participants
216 netball injuries
~ 22 ± 8 Recreational (club) 2 × 5-month seasons per player Baseline questionnaire; diary record then self-report by monthly telephone interview over each season. All injuries
Hopper 1986 [13] AUS 3108 participants
158 netball injuries
12–15
> 15
Competitive to
Recreational (club)
1 × 14-week season
1983
Injury data recorded in questionnaire by courtside first aid room physiotherapist; other data provided by player in self-report questionnaire. All moderate to severe injuries
Hopper et al. 1995 [28] AUS 11228 participants
608 netball injuries
> 14
18.8 ± 5.6
Competitive to
Recreational (club)
5 × 14-week seasons
1984–1989
Injury data recorded in questionnaire by courtside first aid room physiotherapist; other data provided by player in self-report questionnaire. All moderate to severe injuries
Hopper et al. 1995 [29] AUS 72 participants
22 netball injuries
15–36
20.6 ±3.6
Elite to
Recreational (club)
1 × 14-week season
1989
Preseason lab testing: somatotype, hypermobility, vertical jump, anaerobic fitness (10-s cycle).
Injury data recorded in questionnaire by courtside first aid room physiotherapist; other data provided by player in self-report questionnaire; training injuries by player report to physiotherapist.
Lower limb and back only
Maulder et al. 2013 [30] SA 24 participants
9 netball injuries
21.6 ± 3.2 Elite (national)
Sub-elite (regional)
1 × 6-month season Player self-report fortnightly via email/phone questioning
Lower limb dominance and asymmetry assessments during preseason.
Lower limb only
McKay et al. 1996 [31] AUS 9,190 participants
159 netball injuries
27.2 ± 7.8 Elite/Recreational (club) 2 × seasons
1991–1992
Courtside injury observers (physiotherapy students/St John’s Ambulance First Aiders) Questionnaire completed by players; Phone follow-up to obtain treatment sought and time loss. All injuries
McManus et al. 2006 [32] AUS 368 participants
272 netball injuries
Majority (66%) 16–30 Recreational (club) 2 × seasons
1997–1998
Baseline questionnaire then telephone interviews every 4 weeks throughout season. All injuries
Pickering Rodriguez et al. 2017 [33] AUS/NZ 29 participants
12 lower body netball injuries
24.1 ± 3.2 Elite/Sub-elite 1 × season
2013
Injuries: Elite—team physiotherapist; Sub-elite—self-report.
Preseason lower limb stiffness measures.
Lower body non-contact injuries
Pringle et al. 1998 [34] NZ 1512 participants
15 netball injuries
6–15 Recreational (club) 4 weeks of season Trained observers (physiotherapy or sports science students) observed games and recorded injuries on incident form over 4 weeks; Post-game interview with player; Telephone follow-up by physiotherapist within 3 days and then after one week (diagnosis and time loss). All injuries
Stevenson et al. 2000 [21] AUS 258 participants
112 netball injuries
22 ± 8
(13.6-30.4)
Recreational (club) 1 × 5-month season 1997 Baseline questionnaire then telephone interviews every 4 weeks throughout season. All injuries
Zulkarnain et al. 2019 [35] Malaysia 42 participants
Intervention (IG) n = 17
Control (CG) n = 25
31 injuries
IG 21. ± 2 1.8
CG 20.9 ± 1.9
Club/District 23.9%
State 60.9%
National 15.2%
6 weeks post intervention Study compared 6-week safe-landing technique injury prevention program (Down 2 Earth) to standard training program; injuries recorded for 6 weeks following the intervention period. Lower limb injuries
Prospective tournaments
Hopper and Elliot 1993 [17] AUS 228 participants
52 netball injuries
U16 14.8 ± 0.4
U21 19.2 ± 2.2
Open 23.7±3.6
Elite/Sub-elite Multi-day Tournament
1988
Player baseline questionnaire and podiatric assessment of lower limbs and back.
Injuries assessed and recorded by physiotherapists; players completed questionnaire regarding events relating to the injury.
Lower limb and back injuries only
Hopper 1997 [20] AUS 213 participants
52 netball injuries
U16 14.8 ± 0.4
U21 19.2 ± 2.2
Open 23.7±3.6
Elite/Sub-elite Multi-day Tournament
1988
Player baseline questionnaire and podiatric assessment of lower limbs and back.
Injuries assessed and recorded by physiotherapists; players completed questionnaire regarding events relating to the injury; somatotype assessed.
Lower limb and back injuries only
Hume et al. 2000 [36] AUS 940 participants
131 netball injuries
18.4 ± 4.4
U17, U19, U23, Open
Sub-elite Multi-day Tournament
(State)
Injured players completed a 5-page questionnaire; Injury treatment provided by physiotherapists, sports trainers, St John’s First Aid personnel, Sports Medicine Australia Van personnel, coaches, or self-treatment. All injuries
Langeveld et al. 2012 [18] SA 1280 participants
205 netball injuries to 192 players
U19, U21, Open, USSA Elite/Sub-elite 3 × Multi-day Tournaments
2009
Injury questionnaire completed by specifically-trained medical staff, team managers or coaches. All injuries
Coetzee et al. 2014 [19] SA 1280 participants
205 netball injuries to 192 players
U19, U21, Open, USSA Elite/Sub-elite 3 × Multi-day Tournaments
2009
Injury questionnaire completed by specifically-trained medical staff, team managers or coaches and questionnaire completed by players re training history and injury prevention practices. All injuries
Smyth et al. 2019 [37] AUS 192 participants
103 injuries to 80 players
U17
U19
Pre-elite 6 Day Tournament 2018 Medical attention injuries diagnosed by physiotherapists and recorded whether the athlete could continue to play immediately after the injury. Players completed a Health Problems Questionnaire which provided additional indications of injuries and effects. All injuries
Retrospective
Attenborough et al. 2016 [38] AUS 96 participants
69 previous ankle injuries
ID 19.4 ± 3.5
Club 24.1 ± 7.9
Inter-district/Recreational (club) All previous ankle injuries Participant questionnaire including ankle sprain history; assessment with Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool—Youth and ankle joint laxity (arthrometer). Recurrent ankle injuries
Finch et al. 2006 [39] AUS 1084 residents
648 all sports/activities 34 netball injuries
> 5 Recreational All sport or active recreation injuries in previous 2 weeks Household telephone survey. All injuries
Hopper and Elliot 1993 [17] AUS 228 participants
504 netball injuries
U16 14.8 ± 0.4
U21 19.2 ± 2.2
Open 23.7±3.6
Elite/Sub-elite All previous lower limb and back injuries Questionnaire: injury history, age, playing position, playing experience, use of orthosis, perceived reasons for injury
Podiatric assessments of lower limb and back, including foot type.
Lower limb and back injuries
Hopper et al. 1994 [40] AUS 204 participants
188 injured players
449 lower limb injuries
U16 14.8 ± NR
U21 19.1 ± NR
Open 23.7 ± NR
Elite/Sub-elite All previous lower limb injuries Questionnaire and foot assessments as per Hopper et al. 1993. 5 categories of foot types: normal, pronating with rearfoot abnormalities, pronating with forefoot abnormalities, non-pronating, other. Lower limb injuries
Pillay et al. 2012 [41] SA 254 participants
301 netball injuries
157 players injured
Nat 24.3 ± 6.3
State 23.9± 5.1
Club 24.2 ± 4.3
Elite/Sub elite All injuries in previous season Questionnaire completed by netball players at tournament. All injuries
Singh et al. 2013 [42] Jamaica 59 participants
70 netball injuries
U16, U21, Senior Elite All previous injuries Questionnaire—self-reported player characteristics, injuries, factors associated with injury. All injuries
Smith et al. 2005 [43] AUS 200 participants
69 players injured
6–16
11 ± 2.5
Competitive to recreational (club) All previous injuries Questionnaire—self-reported player characteristics, injuries, preventative equipment use
Joint hypermobility assessed using Beighton index.
All injuries
Stuelcken et al. 2016 [44] AUS 16 elite players with ACL injuries Not reported Elite Televised games Medically diagnosed injury; Video analysis of circumstances of injury. ACL injuries
Whatman et al. 2017 [45] NZ 166 female participants 16 ± 1 Secondary school Overuse knee and ankle injuries in previous 12 months Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre Overuse Injury Questionnaire re knee (n = 106 completed) and ankle (n = 113 completed). Knee and ankle overuse injuries
Hospital, clinic or insurance records
Cassell et al. 2003 [46] AUS 2300 all sports
81 netball to ED
67 netball to GP
> 4 Mostly recreational 1 year Netball-related ED presentations from Victorian Injury Surveillance System.
Netball-related GP presentations from Extended Latrobe Valley Injury Surveillance (ELVIS) project.
ED and GP presentations
Chong et al. 2004 [47] Singapore 13 female ACL injuries
4 netball injuries
13–38 School/Club 4 years Female ACL injuries at regional Singapore hospital Female ACL injuries
Fernando et al. 2018 [9] AUS 5483 netball injury presentation to ED > 5 All 3 years
Mid 2012–Mid 2015
Presentations of Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset in Victoria NSW. All presentations
Finch et al. 1998 [6] AUS 2,165 child netball injuries
3,098 adult netball injuries
< 15
> 15
Mostly recreational 5 years Sport and active recreation injury cases at selected hospital emergency departments from 1989–1993; standardised data collection form completed by injured player (age, sex, sport, context of injury) and treating doctor (diagnosis, treatment details). Emergency department injury cases
Flood et al. 2009 [48] AUS 4,596 netball injuries > 5
26.3 ± 10.9
All 5 years
2000–2004
Netball-related hospital admissions from the National Hospital Morbidity Database; includes data from all public and most private hospitals. Hospital admissions
Gwynne-Jones et al. 2011 [49] NZ 363 Achilles injuries
285 sports injuries
88 netball injuries
15–60 All 8.5 years
1999–2008
Participants identified through emergency department, in patient, surgical audit and physiotherapy department records. Achilles tendon rupture
Hassan et al. 2001 [50] UK 54 netball injuries
13 netball fractures
5–15 Children 1 year
1997–1998
District General Hospital accident and emergency department. Fractures
Hon et al. 2001 [51] Malaysia 113 sports injuries
3 netball injuries
7–59 Competitive/
recreational
1 year
1998–1999
Patients reporting to Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology of Seremban Hospital with fractures sustained during sporting activity. Fractures
Hume 1993 [23] NZ 143 hospitalisations
284 netball in ED
1420 insurance claims
298 sports injury clinic
5–15
> 15
All Most 1 year
Clinic 1.7 years
Multiple sources: hospitalisation morbidity data (1 year); Dunedin Hospital Emergency (A&E) Department data (1 year); Accident Compensation Corporation (insurance) claims (1 year); Dunedin Sports Injury Clinic data (1.7 years).
Population and netball participation data from government sources.
All presentations and claims
Hume et al. 1994 [24] NZ 139 hospitalisations
No fatal injuries
3.2% of all injuries
89.3 injuries/100,000
1420 Insurance claims—netball 5.3%
279 ED—netball 7.6%
169 Sports clinic—netball 27.3%
All All Mostly 1 year
Mortality 10 years
Multiple sources: HIS mortality data (10 years); hospitalisation morbidity data (1 year); Dunedin Hospital Emergency (A&E) Department data (1 year); Accident Compensation Corporation (insurance) claims (1 year); Dunedin Sports Injury Clinic data (1 year). All presentations and claims
Joseph et al. 2019 [3] AUS 1215 approved insurance claims 34 ± 17 All 1 year
2016
Netball Australia National Risk Protection Accident Insurance Program data for 2016. Covers all registered players in competitions organised by Netball Australia. Covers training and matches. All approved claims
King et al. 2019 [52] NZ 11748 mod-serious
Females 10,061
Males 1687
9 serious claims (all female)
  All 5 years
2012–2016
NZ Accident Compensation Corporation data over 5 years on acute personal injury claims. Data collected in standardised manner when present to medical practitioner. Moderate to serious and serious injuries
Kirkwood et al. 2019 [8] UK N = 154 netball attendances (98% female) 0–19 All 2.25 years
Jan 2012–Mar 2014
Injuries incurred during netball participation. All ED attendances
Love et al. 1998 [53] NZ 260 netball dental insurance claims 0–75+ All 4 years
1993–1996
New Zealand Accident Rehabilitation and Compensation Insurance Corporation (ACC) database of dental claims related to sports injuries for 4 years. Dental claims
Otago et al. 2007 [54] AUS 829 netball injuries > 10 All 1 year
1999
Insurance claims (accepted) for netball injuries over 12 months. Insurance claims
Purdam 1987 [16] AUS 20 Netball participants
105 netball injuries
Not reported Elite 0.83 year
1986
Physiotherapy department records at the Australian Institute of Sport All treated
Smartt et al. 2009 [55] NZ 1126 netball injuries
Male 215; Female 911
5–82
29 ± NR
All 6 years
2000–2005
Hospital inpatients related to netball injury; data also linked to injury entitlement claims
Participation in netball estimated from national survey data.
Hospital admissions
  1. ACL anterior cruciate ligament; AUS Australia; ED emergency department; GP general (primary) practitioner; NZ New Zealand; SA South Africa; U under (age); UK United Kingdom; USSA University Sports South Africa