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Fig. 2 | Sports Medicine - Open

Fig. 2

From: The Surfer’s Shoulder: A Systematic Review of Current Literature and Potential Pathophysiological Explanations of Chronic Shoulder Complaints in Wave Surfers

Fig. 2

While seated, the elbow rests on the knee (A1), the forearm is moved from a horizontal position to a vertical position (A2). Purpose: external rotator strengthening. Lying on one side with a straightened leg, the upper leg has the knee flexed in 90° (B1). A circular movement is made with the upper arm while attempting to keep the thumb in contact with the floor until 180° of shoulder extension is reached (B3). The elbow should remain extended. Purpose: increasing shoulder mobility. While lying down in prone position, slightly extend the lower spine (like the paddle position on a surf board). Starting with the arms in 90° abduction (C1), the elbows are pulled down so the arms are in 45° abduction (C2). This position may be advanced by adding some external rotation and retroflexion to reach a maximal downward rotation of the scapula and hence enhance scapular posterior tilt and downward rotation. The arms are then brought to 135° abduction (C3) and repositioned as in C2 (C4). Purpose: scapular retraction training in combination with external rotator strengthening. All photographic materials are original work from SH, who gave permission for open access publication

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