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Table 3 Summary of included studies reporting coach-intended and/or observed and athlete-reported rating of perceived exertion

From: Factors Influencing the Association Between Coach and Athlete Rating of Exertion: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Reference Participants characteristics   Analysis Results
     Coach details Training content Scale Metrics Coaches   Coaches Athletes
  Age Status/level Sport Number of coaches and/or yrs experience     RIE   ROE RPE RIE vs. RPE ROE vs. RPE Other
Brink et al [9] 12 M (20.3 ± 1.5 yrs) Professional Club Soccer 1 coach 13 yrs experience 26 training sessions (2 4-week mesocycles) 6-20 Borg scale No Feedback 15.0 ± 1.4   15.1 ± 1.5 15.0 ± 1.9    Difference between ROE-RPE feedback (F(1.229) = 9.16, p = 0.003, ES 0.4)
     231 exertion scores   Feedback 14.8 ± 1.8   15.2 ± 2.0 14.8 ± 2.4   
Kraft et al [10] 56 M & F Intercollegiate F soccer, volleyball and basketball 4 coaches 433 training sessions CR10       sRIE CI vs. RPE sROE vs. RPE sRIE vs. sROE
   M basketball     sRPE Overall 620 ± 322   575 ± 312 513 ± 300 r = 0.65 r = 0.83 r = 0.93
     Volleyball = 74   sRPE Volleyball 555 ± 177   589 ± 186 494 ± 198 r = 0.31 r = 0.32 r = 0.91
     Soccer = 123   sRPE Soccer 240 ± 175   04 ± 164 219 ± 175 r = 0.79 r = 0.72 r = 0.89
     Womens’ basketball = 124   sRPE Womens Basketball 815 ± 245   763 ± 255 711 ± 282 r = 0.71 r = 0.60 r = 0.83
     Mens’ basketball = 112   sRPE Mens basketball 864 ± 130   760 ± 165 628 ± 220 r = 0.42 r = 0.48 r = 0.74
     Hard intensity    6.5 ± 1.2   8.2 ± 0.4    r = -0.26  
     Moderate intensity    6.1 ± 1.2   5.6 ± 0.7    r = 0.28  
     Easy intensity    3.7 ± 1.9   2.9 ± 1.1    r = 0.58  
Barnes et al [11] 13 M (20.2 ± 1.4 yrs) Highly trained Cross-country runners 2 coaches 110 training days (3024 sessions) CR10 Season average        
12 F (19.7 ± 1.6 yrs)       sRPE load (F)        
       Easy intensity 64 ± 12    92 ± 53    
       Moderate intensity 244 ± 34    259 ± 87    
       Hard intensity 551 ± 84    507 ± 118    
       sRPE load (M)        
       Easy intensity 82 ± 21    157 ± 88    
       Moderate intensity 351 ± 46    448 ± 149    
       Hard intensity 646 ± 105    658 ± 157    
De Brujin et al [12] 9 (7 M & 2 F) 22 ± 3 yrs Amateur Soccer 2 physiotherapists with “multiple years of experience” and involved in athletes’ rehabilitation for 6 months and with “several years” outdoor rehabilitation training experience 3 training sessions 6 to 20 Borg scale       RIE vs. RPE   RIE vs. Distance
      Overall      r = 0.35   r = 0.26
      Warmup      r = 0   r = 0.30
       Core 1      r = 0.61   r = 0.65
       Core 2      r = 0.75   r = -0.08
Doeven et al [13] 14 M (26.7 ± 3.8 yrs) Elite Basketball 1 coach (<10 yrs) Competition (8 domestic, 1 cup and 6 euro leagues ) within 6 weeks (2.5 matches per week) 6 to 20 Borg scale         
      RPE 16.1 ± 1.4    15.6 ± 2.3    
      sRPE load 418 ± 130    403 ± 135 r = 0.25; p < 0.01   
Redvka et al [14] 24 M (24.1 ± 3.4 yrs) Professional Soccer 2 coaches 22 training sessions (first 3 weeks of pre-season) CR10   6.7 ± 1.78    6.8 ± 1.43 r = 0.60; p = 0.003; ES = 0.05   
    1 technical coach (8 yrs coaching experience) 1465 mins          
    1 Physical coach (20 yrs experience)           
Scantlebury et al [15] 9 F (17.4 ± 0.8 yrs) Independent school Hockey 4 coaches (one per sport). All coaches had > 5 yrs and had worked with participants for > 1 yr Training 28, 125, and 66 easy, moderate, and hard training sessions were analyzed CR10       RIE vs. RPE   RIE vs. ROE
8 F (17.6 ± 0.6 yrs)   Netball   Overall 3.6 ± 1.2   3.5 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 1.8 r = 0.39   r = 0.63
10 M (17.2 ± 0.4 yrs)   Rugby union    Easy intensity 1.9 ± 0.3   2.3 ± 0.9 3.8 ± 2.2 r = 0.39; 95%CI 0.02-0.67   r = 0.54 95% CI 0.09-0.76
10 M (17.2 ± 0.8 yrs)   Soccer     Moderate intensity 3.2 ± 0.4   3.1 ± 0.4 2.9 ± 1.2 r = 0.27; 95% CI 0.1-0.43   r = 0.20 95%CI 0.02-0.36
       Hard intensity 5.2 ± 0.6   4.6 ± 1.1 4.5 ± 2.1 r = 0.46; 95% CI 0.25-0.63   r = 0.79; 95%CI 0.68-0.87
Vaquera et al [16] 12 M (16 ± 0.4 yrs) Junior National League Basketball 1 coach with 18 yrs experience training U16 and U18 Training (6 weeks) CR10 9 training sessions        
       7 games 1vs1 SSG   No data      
       6 games 2 vs. 2 SSG        
       8 games of 5 vs. 5 SSG        
       5 games of 3 vs. 2 SSG        
Brink et al [17] 31 M Highest level Soccer 1 U15 coach = 18 yrs experience 977 training sessions (8 weeks) 6 to 20 Borg scale   13.3 ± 2.1   13.3 ± 2.2 13.6 ± 2.2 RIE vs. RPE ROE vs. RPE  
16 (14.3 ± 0.3 yrs) competition   1 U17 coach = 23 yrs experience u15 = 445 sessions        (r = 0.58 (p < 0.01)) (r = 0.64 (p < 0.01))  
17 (16.3 ± 0.2 yrs)     u17 = 532 session          
Rabelo et al [18] 18 M (24.6 ± 3.8 yrs) Professional Futsal 1 coach with 3 yrs experience with tool 314 training sessions (45 weeks) CR10         
       Low        
       Pre-season 3.9 ± 1.2    2.9 ± 0.5    
       Comp 1 3.3 ± 0.5    3.0 ± 0.6    
       Inter Comp nr    nr    
       Comp 2 3.0 ± 1.0    3.7 ± 0.8    
       Moderate        
       Pre-season 5.3 ± 0.7    4.7 ± 0.6    
       Comp 1 4.9 ± 0.5    4.3 ± 0.5    
       Inter Comp 5.5 ± 0.5    4.8 ± 0.6    
       Comp 2 6.4 ± 0.5    4.2 ± 0.3    
       High        
       Pre-season 7.6 ± 0.5    6.0 ± 0.9    
       Comp 1 6.4 ± 0.6    5.1 ± 0.4    
       Inter Comp 7.6 ± 0.5    5.4 ± 0.6    
       Comp 2 7.5 ± 0.8    6.0 ± 0.4    
Andrade Nogueira et al [19] 17 (10 M, 7F) (15.2 ± 0.57 yrs) State and National Swimmers 1 coach 18 training sessions CR10 All sessions 3.4 ± 1.2    3.4 ± 1.9 ICC = 0.80; 95%CI = 0.75 to 0.84; p = 0.001   
       Transformation phase 3.9 ± 1.4    4.2 ± 2.0 ICC = 0.79; 95%CI = 0.71 to 0.84; p = 0.001   
       Taper phase 2.9 ± 0.3    2.2 ± 0.8 ICC = 0.19; 95%CI = − .10 to 0.41; p = 0.001   
de Andrade et al [20] 15 M (24 ± 2.8 yrs) National Championship Volleyball 1 coach 34 training sessions (510 data points) CR10 Total      k = 0.64   
       Setter      k = 0.78   
       Liberos      k = 0.79   
       Outside hitters      k = 0.75   
       Middle blockers      k = 0.74   
       Opposites      k = 0.75   
Barroso et al [21] 160 Local, State and National level Swimmers 9 coaches   CR10 All age groups      r = 0.60; p < 0.001   
11-12 yrs n = 46       11–12 yrs      r = 0.31; p < 0.001   
13–14 yrs n = 65       13–14 yrs      r = 0.51; p < 0.001   
15–16 yrs n = 49       15–16 yrs      r = 0.74; p < 0.001   
Murphy et al [22] 14 (8 M & 6 F) (15 ± 1.2 yrs) Elite Tennis 6 coaches (10 ± 3 yrs coaching) 21 ± 3 training sessions (16 weeks, 285 drills ) CR10         RIE vs. ROE
      Mental exertion (0–10) predicted sRPE 5.5 ± 1.2       ICC = 0.79
       session RPE 5.4 ± 1.1    6.2 ± 1.4 r = 0.59   
       Drill Physical sRPE 5.1 ± 1.7    5.4 ± 1.7 r = 0.71   
       Drill Mental sRPE 6.0 ± 1.6    5.8 ± 1.6 r = 0.68   
Rodrguez-Marrayo et al [23] 12 F (21 ± 3 yrs) University Volleyball 4 coaches 15 weeks of training CR10   Expert coach Beginner coach      
    2 experts (< 10 yrs)    sRPE—mean weekly 231 ± 66 228 ± 64   245 ± 72    
    2 beginners (≤ 1 yr)    sRPE—total weekly 1617 ± 459 1595 ± 446   1716 ± 506    
       Monotony 1.2 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.2   1.2 ± 0.2    
       Strain 1920 ± 791 1921 ± 824   2129 ± 944    
       Players vs. experts      r = 0.70   
       Players vs. beginners      r = 0.72   
       Beginners vs. experts      r = 0.80   
Brink et al [24] 16 M (U19/17) Professional Soccer 2 coaches 2446 training sessions 6 to 20 Borg scale RPE 13.6 ± 1.59    14.0 ± 1.72 r = 0.24   
    u17 coach (numerous yrs experience)    sRPE 923 ± 207    944 ± 204 r = 0.41; p < 0.0001   
    u15 coach (numerous yrs experience)           
Viveiros et al [25] 40 M National Team Judo 4 separate coaches for the sessions 4 training sessions CR10 Session 1 4    6.0 ± 0.7    
       Session 2 3    7.6 ± 0.5    
       Session 3 5    5.8 ± 1.6    
       Session 4 3    7.0 ± 0.7    
Wallace et al [26] 12 (6 M, 6 F) 22.3 ± 3.1 yrs Competitive Swimmers 2 coaches 20 individual training sessions CR10 Training duration      r = 0.86; p < 0.01   
       RPE      r = 0.84; p < 0.01   
       sRPE load      r = 0.85; p < 0.01   
Foster et al [27] 6 M University Runners 3 coaches but only each athlete had own coach 5 weeks training sessions CR10 Training duration      r = 0.65   
9 F       RPE      r = 0.75   
       sRPE      r = 0.74   
       Easy (RPE) 1.8 ± 0.5    2.4 ± 1.4    
       sRPE 91 ± 13    128 ± 72    
       Intermediate (RPE) 3.4 ± 0.7    3.4 ± 1.7    
       srPE 196 ± 66    210 ± 149    
       Hard (RPE) 7.1 ± 1.2    6.2 ± 2.5    
       sRPE 486 ± 194    422 ± 256    
  1. M, male; F, female, U, under; yrs, years; (s)RPE, (session) rate of perceived exertion; CR10, category ratio 10; RIE, rate of intended exertion; ROE, rate of observed exertion
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