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Table 2 Description of the quality of the article, data collection period, sex of participants, sport, number of teams or athletes/players, injury definition used within the study and injury data reported

From: Recurrent and Subsequent Injuries in Professional and Elite Sport: a Systematic Review

References Data quality Data collection Sex Sport Number of teams/players Injury definition Number of injuries (incidence) Number of recurrent or subsequent injuries (proportion) Recurrent injury incidence Subsequent injury category
van Beijsterveldt et al. [60] 16/23 Continuous prospective
6 years
Male Football 14 clubs Time-loss 2365 (4.8/1000 h) 20% (58% of muscle injuries were recurrent)
Bengtsson et al. [64] 11/23 Prospective cohort
16 seasons
Male Football 64 teams
4088 players
Time-loss 16,087 (25.0/1000 match hours) 219 46.9 injuries/1000 match hours
Bjørneboe et al. [37] 13/23 Continuous prospective
6 years
Male Football 14 clubs Time-loss 2365 (4.8/1000 h) 20%
Dvorak et al. [38] 12/23 Prospective
Up to 1 month
Male Football 32 teams
736 players
All encompassing 125 match (time-loss = 40.1/1000 match hours)
104 training (time-loss = 4.4/1000 training hours)
12 (11.5%)
Eirale et al. [39] 14/23 Prospective
17 months
Male Football 36 players Time-loss 78 (78.0/1000 match hours) 19 (24.4%) 1.9/1000 h
Eirale et al. [40] 14/23 Prospective cohort
3 seasons
Male Football 609 players Time-loss 826 (4.97/1000 h) 97
Ekstrand et al. [44] 13/23 Prospective cohort
7 seasons
Male Football 14 teams Time-loss 4483 12%
Ekstrand et al. [43] 11/23 Prospective cohort
4 seasons
Male Football 23 teams
816 players
Time-loss 516 16%
Ekstrand et al. [25] 11/23 Prospective, throughout season
1–9 seasons
Male Football 51 teams
2299 players
Time-loss 2908 16%
Ekstrand et al. [46] 9/23 Prospective, throughout season
8 seasons
Male Football 54 teams
2379 players
Time-loss 51 29%
Ekstrand et al. [41] 14/23 Prospective
1–12 seasons
Male Football 3487 players Time-loss 67 fractures (0.037/1000 match hours) 7 refractures (25%)
Ekstrand et al. [45] 12/23 Prospective cohort
1 season
Male Football 31 teams
1032 players
Time-loss 393 49 (12%)
Ekstrand et al. [47] 11/23 Prospective, throughout seasons
8 seasons
Male Football 46 teams Time-loss 1488 16%
Ekstrand et al. [42] 11/23 Long-term prospective observational
13 seasons
Male Football 36 clubs Time-loss 1614 (1.2/1000 h) 216 (13%)
Ekstrand et al. [59] 8/23 Prospective
1–16 seasons
Male Football 116 teams Time-loss 22,942 3016 (1.3–48%)
Ergün et al. [48] 10/23 Prospective
3 years
Male Football 52 players Medical attention and time-loss 44 injuries—29 time-loss (30.4 match time-loss injuries/1000 h) 11 (25%)
Gajhede-Knudsen et al. [49] 10/23 Prospective
1–11 seasons
Male Football 27 teams
1743 players
Time-loss 8029 12% (27% of Achilles injuries were recurrent)
Gomez-Piqueras et al. [50] 13/23 Prospective
2 seasons
Male Football 1 team
71 players
All encompassing 165 12 (22%)
Hägglund et al. [62] 11/23 Prospective cohort
9 seasons
Male Football 51 teams
2299 players
Time-loss 139 1 in 5
Hagglund et al. [61] 14/23 Prospective
9 seasons
Male Football 26 clubs
1401 players
Time-loss 6140 564 (27%)
Hägglund et al. [4] 11/23 Prospective
1–14 seasons
Male Football 43 top-level
19 elite
Time-loss 11,581 top-level (7.2/1000 h), 3836 elite (7.4/1000 h) 1615 (17%) top-level, 794 (25%) elite 1.00/1000 h top-level, 1.52/1000 h elite
Gajhede-Knudsen et al. [49] 10/23 Prospective
1–11 seasons
Male Football 27 teams
1743 players
Time-loss 8029 12% (27% of Achilles injuries were recurrent)
Larruskain et al. [63] 13/23 Prospective
6 seasons
Male Football 107 players Time-loss 160 injuries (1.64/1000 h—7.49/1000 match hours, 0.71/1000 training injuries) 64 (24 (15%) less than 2 months, 40 (25%) within same season) 0.25/1000 h less than 2 months, 0.41/1000 h within same season
Larruskain et al. [53] 14/23 Prospective
5 seasons
Mixed Football 85 players Time-loss 483 (8.31/1000 h men, 6.3/1000 h women) 135 (31% for men, 23% for women) 2.55 recurrence/1000 h for men, 1.42/1000 h for women
Hallen and Ekstrand [51] 12/23 Prospective
1–12 seasons
Male Football 89 teams Time-loss 17,371, 5603 muscle injuries 15%
Jones et al. [52] 10/23 Prospective cohort
1 season
Male Football 10 teams
243 players
Time-loss 473 (9.11/1000 h) 27.3% hamstring, 20% groin, 10% quads
Lee et al. [54] 12/23 Prospective
1 season
Male Football 7 teams
152 players
Time-loss 296 (7.4/1000 h—61.1 for match, 3.4 for training) 52 (21%)
29% early recurrence, 39% late recurrences, 32% delayed recurrence
Lundblad et al. [55] 10/23 Prospective cohort
11 seasons
Male Football 27 teams
1743 players
Time-loss 8029—346 MCL injuries (0.33/1000 h—1.31 match, 0.14 training) 11%
Nordström et al. [56] 11/23 Prospective observational
1–11 seasons
Male Football 46 teams
1665 players
Time-loss 8695—71 concussions 756 subsequent to concussion
Noya Salces et al. [57] 11/23 Prospective, throughout season
1 season
Male Football 16 clubs
427 players
All encompassing 1293—524 match (43.5/1000 h), 769 training (3.6/1000 h)   4.7 in match, 0.4 in training per 1000 h
Petersen et al. [58] 11/23 Prospective, throughout season
12 months
Male Football 16 teams
374 players
All encompassing 46—28 in match (1.82/1000 h), 14 in training (0.12/1000 h) 8 (25%)
Stubbe et al. [30] 13/23 Prospective
39 weeks
Male Football 8 teams
217 players
Time-loss 286 (6.2/1000 h) 8%
76 players sustained multiple—40 injured twice, 16 injured 3 times, 11 injured 4 times, 9 injured 5 times or more
0.5 recurrence/1000 h
Cross et al. [65] 11/23 Prospective cohort
2 seasons
Male Rugby 810 players Time-loss 181 (8.9/1000 h) 116.1—144.6/1000 h
Fuller et al. [66] 13/23 Prospective, throughout tournament
7 weeks
Male Rugby 626 players Time-loss 161 match, 60 training (83.9/1000 h) 9 match, 16 training
Fuller et al. [67] 14/23 Prospective, throughout tournament
7 weeks
Male Rugby 615 players Time-loss 171 match, 35 training (89.1 match, 2.2 training injuries/1000 h) 24 (14%) match, 17% training
Fuller et al. [2] 14/23 Prospective, throughout tournament
7 weeks
Male Rugby 639 players Time-loss 173 match, 20 training (90.1 match, 1.0 training injuries/1000 h) 20 (11.6%) match, 3 (15%) training
Kenneally-Dobrowski et al. [74] 11/23 Prospective
5 years
Male Rugby 74 players Time-loss 30 hamstring injuries—63% training, 37% match 7%
Kemp et al. [68] 10/23 Prospective, weekly throughout season
3 seasons
Male Rugby 13 clubs
757 players
Time-loss 155 match, 14 training. 96 match concussions, 5 training 10%
Ma et al. [69] 14/23 Prospective cohort
3 years
Female Rugby 552 players Medical attention and time-loss 15 (32.6/1000 h) 24%
Moore et al. [27] 13/23 Prospective, throughout tournament
3 years
Male Rugby 1 team
78 players
Time-loss 144 match (180.0/1000 h), 41 training (4.7/1000 h) 19%
Moore et al. [70] 10/23 Prospective
3 seasons
Male Rugby 1 team Time-loss 648 29% were subsequent 59% SIC 10
21% SIC 2, 3 or 4
Pearce et al. [71] 9/23 Prospective
4 seasons
Male Rugby 899 players Time-loss 147 (3.3/1000 match hours, 0.09/1000 training hours) 15–20%
Rafferty et al. [72] 10/23 Prospective, throughout season
4 years
Male Rugby 4 teams
429 players
Time-loss 2441 injuries—1602 match (94.5—177.0/1000 h), 514 training 18% greater risk of injury after concussion
Toohey et al. [75] 12/23 Prospective cohort
2 seasons
Mixed Rugby 90 players Medical attention 365
43.2/1000 h
95.2% players sustained at least 1 subsequent injury 80.7% SIC VIII, 10.3% SIC VII, 6.1% SIC VI
Williams et al. [73] 10/23 Prospective cohort
8 seasons
Male Rugby 1556 players Time-loss 9597 time-loss—6903 match, 2617 training 8180 (85%) subsequent injuries—6063 in match, 2087 in training 70% were “new”
14% were “local”
16% were “recurrent”
Junge et al. [81] 10/23 Prospective, throughout championships
16 days
Mixed Multi-events 92 teams
9672 athletes
Medical attention 1055 (96.1 per 1000 registered athletes) 47 (5.5%)
Alonso et al. [76] 11/23 Prospective
8 days
Mixed Athletics 49 teams
1980 athletes
Medical attention 105 time-loss injuries (53.0 time-loss per 1000 athletes) 15 (8%)
Alonso et al. [77] 13/23 Prospective
9 days
Mixed Athletics 47 teams
1486 athletes
Medical attention 236 (135.4/1000 registered athletes) 10.6%
Alonso et al. [78] 15/23 Prospective
9 days
Mixed Athletics 61 countries
1512 athletes
Medical attention 249 (134.5/1000 registered athletes) 23 (9.3%)
Edouard et al. [79] 14/23 Prospective, throughout championship
3 days
Mixed Athletics 440 athletes Medical attention and time-loss 30 injuries—8 time-loss (47.5/1000 registered athletes) 1
Edouard et al. [80] 15/23 Prospective, during championship
5 days
Mixed Athletics 1244 athletes Medical attention and time-loss 132 (98.4/1000 registered athlete, 46.2 time-loss/1000 registered athletes) 8 (6.1%)
Moore et al. [70] 10/23 Prospective
3 years
Male Cricket 1 team Medical attention and time-loss 286—96 time-loss 90% were subsequent 51% SIC 10
8% SIC 7 or 8
5% SIC 2, 3, 4 or 6