Skip to main content

Table 1 List of abnormalities and the corresponding grading systems used in this study

From: Lumbar spine abnormalities and facet joint angles in asymptomatic elite junior tennis players

Abnormality Grading System used Classifications
Pars abnormality Ang et al. [17] Grade 0 = normal, grade 1 = a stress reaction, grade 2a = an active incomplete fracture, grade 2b = a chronic incomplete fracture, grade 3 = active complete fracture, grade 4 = chronic complete fracture
Bone marrow edema Sims et al. [18] The severity is calculated from the sagittal STIR sequence. The intensity value of bone marrow at the site of edema is measured using the region of interest tool. This value is then divided by the value of normal bone marrow within the vertebral body at the same level of the pars. This is referred to as the BMO “ratio”
Disc herniation Mysliwiec et al. [19] Grading is dependent upon the direction and the magnitude of the disc protrusion. The grading depends on the magnitude of the distance the protrusion extends posteriorly (grading is between 1 and 3), and then follows with the mediolateral location of the protrusion (grade A–C).
Nerve root compression Pfirrmann et al. [20] Grade 0 = normal, grade 1 = contact, grade 2 = deviation, or grade 3 = compression
Canal stenosis Guen et al. [21] Grade 0 = normal, grade 1 = mild, grade 2 = moderate, grade 3 = severe
Foraminal stenosis Park et al. [22] Grade 0 = normal, grade 1 = mild, grade 2 = moderate, grade 3 = severe
Disc degeneration Pfirrmann et al. [23] Grade 0 = normal through to grade 5 = severe
Annular fissure Yes/no answer with location (right, posterior/central or left) “Yes” or “No”
Modic endplate changes Modic et al. [24] “Type 1” (decreased signal intensity on T1-weight images, increased signal intensity in T2-weighted images), “Type 2” (increased signal on T1-weighted images and a slightly hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images), or “Type 3” (decreased signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images)
Schmorl’s nodes Yes/no answer “Yes” or “No”
Scheuermann’s disease Yes/no answer “Yes” or “No”
Facet joint orientation Noren et al. [25] (Adapted method from Noren et al.) Facet joint orientation was measured using a midsagittal line through the vertebral body and the intersecting lines passing over the endpoints of each facet (see Fig. 1).
Facet joint degeneration Weishaupt et al. [26] Grade 0 = normal through to grade 3 = severe
Facet synovial cyst Yes/no answer with location (left/right and infraspinal/extraspinal) “Yes” or “No” with “Right” or “Left”
Spondylolisthesis Meyerding [27] Grade 0 = no spondylolisthesis, grade 1 = 1–25% vertebral slip, grade 2 = 26–50% vertebral slip, grade 3 = 51–75% vertebral slip, grade 4 = 76–100% vertebral slip, or grade 5 = > 100% vertebral slip
Spina bifida occulta Yes/no answer “Yes” or “No”