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Table 1 Summary of included articles

From: Physical Activity Behavior from a Transdisciplinary Biopsychosocial Perspective: a Scoping Review

Authors (year) [citation no.] Research objective Theoretical model or approach Model’s components Integration of PA Relationships or interactions between components
Empirical articles
Flannery et al. (2019) [25] Examining the link between social, biological, behavioral, and psychological factors and level of PA in healthy pregnant women. Biopsychosocial model Biological: Gravidity, BMI
Behavioral: Smoking, alcohol, folate intake, fruit and vegetables, fish
Psychological: Anxiety, stress, depression, response to pregnancy
Social: Age, ethnicity, marital status, employment status, accommodation, socioeconomic status, maternity service
(Possible) determinants Unidirectional influence of the components on PA levels
Hearst et al. (2012) [26] Examining factors that predict PA in children and adolescents between 10 and 16 years Socio-ecological model Intrapersonal: Self-efficacy, PA enjoyment, barriers to PA
Behavioral: Screen time; sports team participation
Social: Parent and peer support
Physical environment: Home PA environment, neighborhood safety, walkability
Individual-level measure (covariates): Pubertal status, age, sex, race, weight, height, percent body fat, demographic and socioeconomic status
(Possible) determinants Unidirectional influence of the respective components on PA
Lämmle et al. (2013) [27] Examining the association between distal and proximal factors that influence PA, sedentary behavior, and eating behavior and relationship to health in children and adolescents between 4 and 17 years Biopsychosocial model Distal (environmental): Socio-economic status, rural-urban differences, immigration background
Proximal I (interpersonal): PA of relatives and peers
Proximal II (intrapersonal): Motivation, psychopathological problems, quality of life
Behavioral: PA, eating patterns, sedentary behavior
Objective health and physical fitness: BMI, body fat, blood pressure, cholesterol
Health and health complaints: Pain, psychosomatic and physical complaints, subjective health
(Possible) effects and determinants Interrelationships between components
McNeil et al. (2006) [28] Examining the relationship between individual factors and factors of the social and physical environment on PA within a group of Afro Americans and Caucasian Americans Socio-ecological model Individual: Self-efficacy, motivation
Social environmental: Social support
Physical environmental: Neighborhood quality, access to facilities
Sociodemographic: Age, race, ethnicity, sex, household income, education
(Possible) determinants Integration of different intensities of PA (unidirectional relationships);
Relationships between components (but not bidirectional)
Meisner et al. (2010) [29] Examining the relationship between PA and the three components of successful aging within a group of 60 years of age and above Biopsychosocial model
(after Rowe and Kahn [30, 31])
Low probability of disease or disease-related disability: Presence of chronic conditions (respiratory diseases, inflammatory diseases, inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic and related diseases, cancers, incontinence, back problems)
High cognitive and physical functional capacity: Assistance with instrumental and general activities of daily living
Active social engagement with life: Time spent in sedentary activities, sense of belonging to the local community, involvement in voluntary social organizations
Covariates: Sex, age, total household income
(Possible) effects Unidirectional influence of PA on components of successful aging
van Roekel et al. (2015) [32] Examining the relationship between low and moderate-to-vigorous PA and the health-relevant quality of life in former colorectal cancer patients Biopsychosocial model
(based on International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health)
Cancer-specific quality of life: Global health; physical, role and social functioning; self-reported fatigue; anxiety and depression; disability
Other factors: Sociodemographic characteristics (sex, age, education level, smoking status), BMI, presence of comorbidities, clinical characteristics
(Possible) effects and determinants Integration of PA into the model (with bidirectional relationships);
Interrelationships between components
Non-empirical articles
Collins et al. (2011) [33] Description of a multidimensional approach for lifelong sport participation and PA using a critical perspective on key theories Biopsychosocial model of participation in PA Biological: Biological maturation, readiness, hormonal change
Psychological: Psychological development, pressure
Social: Transitions, access, peer, social expectations
(Possible) determinants Unidirectional influence of components on PA;
Possible interactions between components over the life course
Kanavaki et al. (2017) [34] Systematic review of barriers and facilitators to participation in PA in adults with gon- or coxarthrosis Biopsychosocial model
after Engel [35]
Physical health: Pain, physical capacity, age, physical fitness
Intrapersonal/psychological: Experience and beliefs about PA, behavioral regulation and attitude, emotions
Social environment: Health professional, social support
Physical environment: Cost, accessibility, temperature, safety issues
(Possible) determinants Unidirectional influence of the respective components on PA;
Reference to interrelationships between components
Kanning and Schlicht (2008) [36] Description of a biopsychosocial model for successful aging and its effects on subjective well-being Biopsychosocial model of successful aging Personal disposition: Physiological constitution/genotype, personality, socialization/sports-biography, socio-economic status
Social-structural constraints: Stereotypes, behavior setting, offers/ facilities
Psychological: Cognition, emotion, goals, need satisfaction, subjective well-being
(Possible) effects Unidirectional influence of PA on subjective well-being
King and King (2010) [37] Discussion of advantages of a healthy lifestyle, and current problems and challenges and their significance for science, politics, and practice Socio-ecological model Personal: Sex, age, genes, beliefs, enjoyment of PA, motivation, health status, function, well-being
Individual behavior: Types of PA, sedentary behaviors
Social/cultural: Modeling/support for PA, social norms and cultural values, institutions, mass media
Environment/ Policy: Neighborhood, infrastructure, urban planning, health care, policies
(Possible) determinants Unidirectional influence of the respective components on PA;
Change of components over the life course
Levy-Storms et al. (2018) [38] Systematic review on needs of older adults regarding open spaces, parks, and PA in comparison to younger adults Biopsychosocial model of health Biological/physical needs: Self-reported physical health, stress, good accessibility, places to rest, ergonomic features
Psychological needs: Choice, feelings of safety
Social needs: Foster engagement in social activities, social support, space for social interaction
(Possible) determinants Reference to interrelationships between components;
Inclusion of the environment and the life course
Sallis et al. (2006) [39] Proposition of a multilevel model of active living that can inform interventions for changes in activity behavior Ecological model Intrapersonal: Demographics, biological, psychological, family situation
Perceived environment: Safety, attractiveness, comfort, crime, convenience, accessibility
Behavior settings: Neighborhood, recreation, home, transport, workplace, school
Policy: Health care, transport policies, school policies, traffic regulations, neighborhood development policies, media regulations
(Possible) determinants Unidirectional influence of respective components on PA
Stubbs et al. (2015) [40] Systematic review on factors that influence participation in PA in adult patients with gon- or coxarthrosis Socio-ecological model Demographic: Age, ethnicity, sex, BMI
Biological: Symptoms, pain, aerobic capacity, strength, obesity, stiffness, comorbidities, cardiovascular fitness
Behavioral and skill: Limb function/balance, gait speed, daily living function
Psychological/cognitive/emotional: Confidence, quality of life, depression, intention to engage in PA
Social/cultural: Spouse, employment, exercise in group, social and work functioning
Physical environment: Outside temperature, rain
(Possible) determinants Unidirectional influence of respective components on PA
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