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Table 3 Prevalence of pigmented lesions and skin cancer in participants in golf, cricket and surfing

From: Solar Ultraviolet Exposure in Individuals Who Perform Outdoor Sport Activities

Study Quality rating Sport Region N Measures Outcomes
del Boz et al. [73] 4 Golf Spain 195 Physical examinations Actinic keratosis was found in 40%; clinical suspicion of BCC in 7.7%
Atypical nevi in 7.7%, SCC in 2.1%, melanoma in 1.5%
Noble-Jerks et al. [62] 4 Cricket Australia 164 Questionnaires about lifetime diagnosis of skin cancer 38.4% (63) had at least one skin cancer
Dozier et al. [63] 3 Surf Texas, USA 49 surfers, 60 controls Physical examinations AK 20 surfers; 8 controls (not significant)
Atypical nevi 18 surfers; 6 controls (not significant)
BCC 8 surfers; 1 control p < 0.047
Climstein et al. [60] 4 Surf Australia 1348 Questionnaires about lifetime diagnosis of skin cancer 184 (13.6%) participants reported skin cancer. Higher relative risk (p < 0.001) in competitive vs recreational surfers (odds ratio 1.74 (CI 1.28–2.31)). BCC was the most frequent skin cancer reported (6.8%), followed by melanoma (1.4%) and SCC (0.6%)
Zink et al. [61] 4 Ski guides Switzerland 62 Physical examinations 22 (35.4%) AK, 4 BCC (6.4%), 1 SCC (1.6%)
  1. Quality rating is based on the robustness of the type of study performed, sample size, and strength of the measured outcomes
  2. BCC basal cell carcinoma, SCC squamous cell carcinoma, AK actinic keratosis