|Study||Type of study||Quality rating||Region||N||Outcomes||Hours of exposure|
|Rosso et al. “Helios”. II ||Case control||3||Southern Europe||1549 BCC, 228 SCC, 1795 controls||
Significant association between BCC and water sports (swimming, surfing, boating, and sailing).|
Non-significant association between BCC and mountain sports (skiing, climbing, hiking) and air sports (flying, hang-gliding and parachuting).
Non-significant association between SCC and water sports stronger with > 2112 h of exposure.
Holidays at the beach OR 1.5 > 2464 cumulated hours
Water sports: OR 1.5 > 771–2112 h
Risk of SCC = significantly increased at > 70,000 h of lifetime sun exposure|
Risk of BCC = 2-fold increase risk at 8000–10,000 cumulated hours in a lifetime
|Rosso et al. ||Case control||3||Sion Switzerland||n = 146, controls = 144||Outdoor sports conveyed an increased risk for basal cell carcinoma: average OR 2.2 p = 0.05||288– > 3420 h of cumulated exposure|
|Schnohr et al. ||Cohort||4||Denmark||28,259 persons||Rate ratio 1.72 (95% CI 1.23–2.40; p = 0.001) for vigorous physical activity compared with low activity and non-melanoma skin cancer in men but not in women.|
|Holman et al. ||Case control||3||Australia||507 melanoma patients, 507 age-, gender-, and location-matched controls||
Boating increased risk for melanoma (OR = 2.43 p = 0.04)|
Fishing increased risk for melanoma OR = 2.72, p = 0.07
Whenever these sports were practiced one or more times a week