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Table 2 Risk for outdoor sporting participants to develop skin cancer

From: Solar Ultraviolet Exposure in Individuals Who Perform Outdoor Sport Activities

Study Type of study Quality rating Region N Outcomes Hours of exposure
Rosso et al. “Helios”. II [66] Case control 3 Southern Europe 1549 BCC, 228 SCC, 1795 controls Significant association between BCC and water sports (swimming, surfing, boating, and sailing).
Non-significant association between BCC and mountain sports (skiing, climbing, hiking) and air sports (flying, hang-gliding and parachuting).
Non-significant association between SCC and water sports stronger with > 2112 h of exposure.
Holidays at the beach OR 1.5 > 2464 cumulated hours
Water sports: OR 1.5 > 771–2112 h
Risk of SCC = significantly increased at > 70,000 h of lifetime sun exposure
Risk of BCC = 2-fold increase risk at 8000–10,000 cumulated hours in a lifetime
Rosso et al. [72] Case control 3 Sion Switzerland n = 146, controls = 144 Outdoor sports conveyed an increased risk for basal cell carcinoma: average OR 2.2 p = 0.05 288– > 3420 h of cumulated exposure
Schnohr et al. [67] Cohort 4 Denmark 28,259 persons Rate ratio 1.72 (95% CI 1.23–2.40; p = 0.001) for vigorous physical activity compared with low activity and non-melanoma skin cancer in men but not in women.  
Holman et al. [68] Case control 3 Australia 507 melanoma patients, 507 age-, gender-, and location-matched controls Boating increased risk for melanoma (OR = 2.43 p = 0.04)
Fishing increased risk for melanoma OR = 2.72, p = 0.07
Whenever these sports were practiced one or more times a week
  1. Quality rating is based on the robustness of the type of study performed, sample size, and strength of the measured outcomes
  2. BCC basal cell carcinoma, SCC squamous cell carcinoma, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval