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Table 7 Study results—asymmetries examined pre and post a loading protocol/task

From: The Influence of Exercise-Induced Fatigue on Inter-Limb Asymmetries: a Systematic Review

Study Parameter Pre Post p ES (d)
Mean SD Mean SD
Bell et al. [7] Peak vGRF Male 16.68 14.53 15.92 14.02 0.94 0.05* Pre vs. post
Female 14.55 11.67 14.91 17.81 0.03*
Loading rate Male 25.80 19.64 25.49 18.02 0.43 0.02*
Female 19.71 17.28 26.11 25.66 0.37*
Bishop et al. [38] SLCMJ Jump height Not stated > 0.05 for all variables N/A
Peak Force
CON Impulse
SLDJ Jump height
RSI
Bromley et al. [16] ECC impulse 14.24 N/A 32.00 N/A < 0.05 3.15
CON impulse 7.73 N/A 10.50 N/A > 0.05 0.31
peak force 14.71 N/A 31.85 N/A < 0.05 2.8
jump height 4.65 N/A 17.22 N/A > 0.05 1.18
peak landing impulse 5.89 N/A 8.51 N/A > 0.05 0.62
peak landing force 7.22 N/A 9.13 N/A > 0.05 0.32
Delextrat et al. [37] Peak torque quadriceps 11.0* 7.2* 13.9* 14.2* 0.51* 0.40*
Peak torque hamstrings 13.2* 9.5* 11.8* 7.8* 0.68* 0.15*
Hecc:Qcon 10.4* 8.5* 13.7* 9.6* 0.27* 0.39*
Radzak et al. [35] Kvert 4.66 3.28 3.07 2.03 0.034 0.49* Pre vs. post
Maximum knee varus velocity 16.97 9.20 13.85 10.24 0.052 0.34*
Knee internal rotation excursion 15.37 6.50 29.40 11.81 0.001 2.16*
Loading rate 2.96 2.25 1.91 2.25 0.035 0.47*
Maximum absolute free moment 10.22 7.27 7.33 5.83 0.057 0.40*
Maximum adduction free moment 11.05 8.39 8.36 6.46 0.062 0.32*
Free moment at peak breaking force 17.22 20.91 10.90 13.28 0.018 0.30*
Knee stiffness 9.18 6.74 14.48 11.27 0.092 0.79*
Webster et al. [36] vGRF ACL − 9.1 10.4 − 0.6 16.4 0.02 0.82*
Control group 1.9 15.2 1.7 14.4 N/A 0.01*
Knee joint moment ACL − 12.0 14.7 5.7 23.4 > 0.025 1.20*
Control group 3.8 25.5 3.5 21.9 N/A 0.01*
Hip joint moment ACL − 11.7 17.2 4.0 26.1 0.004 0.91*
Control group − 6.5 20.2 2.8 26.6 N/A 0.46*
  1. ACLR anterior cruciate ligament rupture, CON concentric, ECC eccentric, ES effect size, Hecc:Qcon functional ratio of the peak eccentric torque of the hamstrings to the peak concentric torque of the quadriceps, Kvert vertical stiffness, N/A not available, RSI reactive strength index, SD standard deviation, SLCMJ single-leg countermovement jump, SLDJ single-leg drop jump, vGRF vertical ground reaction force
  2. *value was calculated post-hoc by the authors