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Table 6 Study results—asymmetries examined during a loading protocol/task

From: The Influence of Exercise-Induced Fatigue on Inter-Limb Asymmetries: a Systematic Review

Study Parameter t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 p ES (d)
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD  
Bishop et al. [30] Jump height 7.62 N/A 9.82 N/A 9.95 N/A 13.25 N/A 14.67 N/A < 0.05 0.83 t1 vs. t4
< 0.05 1.16 t1 vs. t5
Hanley and Tucker [31] Step length 0.42 0.39 0.51 0.46 0.53 0.42 0.53 0.45 0.54 0.39 > 0.05 for all variables 0.31* t1 (1500 m) vs. t5 (9000 m)
Step frequency 0.58 0.52 0.56 0.36 0.55 0.49 0.56 0.53 0.59 0.46 0.02*
Contact time 0.42 0.35 0.33 0.20 0.36 0.22 0.45 0.34 0.46 0.34 0.11*
Flight time 1.16 0.92 1.14 0.75 1.25 1.03 1.40 1.20 1.29 1.10 0.14*
Impact force 1.97 1.47 2.87 1.52 2.74 2.10 2.65 2.23 2.77 2.37 0.54*
Maximum force 1.00 0.81 0.95 0.70 1.01 0.81 1.15 0.87 1.12 0.75 0.15*
Impulse 0.86 0.58 0.82 0.59 0.92 0.61 0.73 0.46 0.81 0.65 0.09*
Matthes and Wolf [33] Leg stretcher force Male 8.2 5.9        9.1 7.0 > 0.05 0.15* 60–90 s vs. 360–390 s (Female) / 60–90 s vs. 300–330 s (Male)
Female 24.9 19.8        28.3 19.5 0.023 0.17*
Girard et al. [20] Performance and running kinetics, running kinematics, spring-mass characteristics Only averaged asymmetry values over all 5 sets of sprints > 0.05 for all variables N/A Could not be calculated
Hodges et al. [32] absolute average vGRF asymmetry Not stated 0.6 N/A Could not be calculated
0.229
Jordan et al. [21] Functional AI values Not stated 0.76 N/A Could not be calculated
Tucker and Hanley [34] Step length, contact time, step frequency, vGRF data Not stated > 0.05 for all variables N/A Could not be calculated
  1. AI asymmetry index, ES effect size, N/A not available, t point of time, SD standard deviation, vGRF vertical ground reaction force
  2. *value was calculated afterwards by the authors