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Table 5 The effect size (ES) of changes following acute or chronic exercise

From: Redox Homeostasis and Inflammation Responses to Training in Adolescent Athletes: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Biomarker Acute exercise Chronic exercise
TBARS Large increase (ES 1.317; p = 0.001) Small decrease (ES 0.568; p = 0.077), n.s
GSH Large decrease (ES -1.701; p = 0.001) Moderate increase (ES 1.131; p = 0.005)
SOD n/a Trivial change (ES 0.513; p = 0.026)
PC Extremely large increase (ES 4.164; p = 0.001) n/a
TAC Moderate increase (ES 1.057; p = 0.001) Trivial change (ES 0.055; p = 0.756), n.s
IL-6 Very large increase (ES 2.291; p = 0.000) n/a
IL-1ra Large increase (ES 1.599; p = 0.012) n/a
  1. GSH reduced glutathione, TBARS thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, PC protein carbonyls, SOD superoxide dismutase, TAC total antioxidant capacity, IL-6 interleukin-6, IL-1ra interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, n.s non-significant, n/a non-applicable