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Table 1 Summary of the acute responses of redox homeostasis variables in adolescent athletes with an overview of the variables examined, the type of activity and sampling times, and the main findings in relation to each variable

From: Redox Homeostasis and Inflammation Responses to Training in Adolescent Athletes: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Author and date, sport Participants Redox status variables examined Type of activity and sampling times Main findings
da Costa et al. 2011 [49] , soccer 10 trained male soccer players, age 18.3 ± 0.7 years TPAP, MDA, CK, LOOH Blood samples before, during, and after a Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) Immediately after the test athletes had: ↓TPAP, ↑MDA, CK, ↔LOOH
Dane et al. 2008, [46], athletics 19 controls, age 18.8 ± 1.9 years, and 20 male runners, age 18.6 ± 2.0 years MDA, GPx, SOD Pre- and post-running on a treadmill Runners after test had: ↔MDA, GPx, SOD
Djordjevic et al. 2010 [9], handball 24 male young handball players, age 16.1 ± 0.6 years O2, H2O2, GSH, CAT, TBARS, SOD, NO2 Blood samples pre- and post a graded exercise test (GXT) on a bicycle ergometer Post-test athletes had: ↑TBARS, NO2, O2, H2O2 ↓SOD, CAT, GSH
Djordjevic et al. 2012 [47], handball 58 adolescent males and 19 control, age 16–19 years O2, H2O2, NO2, SOD, TBARS, CAT, GSH Blood samples pre- and post of a graded exercise test (GXT) on a bicycle At rest athletes displayed: ↑NO2, SOD, CAT, GSH, ↓TBARS, ↔ O2, H2O2. Post-test athletes had: ↓O, ↔TBARS, CAT, GSH, SOD, NO2, H2O2
Escobar et al. 2009 [30], soccer 18 adolescent males, age 17.0 ± 0.5 years SOD, CAT TBARS, PC Pre- and post-10× (2 × 200 m) sprints with 30 s rest between each 200 and a 90-s rest after two consecutive sprints After the test, athletes had: ↑TBARS, PC, SOD, CAT
Hammouda et al. 2012 [31], soccer 18 male football players, age 17.5 ± 0.4 years Bilirubin, UA, TAS Blood samples were collected 5 min before and 3 min after a 30 s Wingate test After exercise athletes had: ↑UA, TBIL, TAS
Hamurcu et al. 2010 [50], wrestling 18 adolescent males and 18 controls, age 13–15 years 8-OHdG, NO, PON1 Pre- and post of 1.5 h of wrestling exercise After test wrestlers had: ↑NO, ↔PON1, 8-OHdG
Inal et al. 2000 [32], swimming 5 males and 4 females and 6 males and 10 females for 100 and 800 m swim, age 15–21 years GSH, GPx, CAT Measures pre-, post-, 20 min post, and 40 min post 100 m and 800 m swimming tests After both swim tests, athletes had: ↑GPx, CAT, ↓GSH
Kabasakalis et al. 2014 [33], swimming 15 adolescent males and 15 females, age 14–18 years 8-OHdG, MDA, PC, GSH, UA, bilirubin Pre-, post-, 1 h, 24 h post-2000 m continuous and 6 × 50 m intermittent maximal swim Male swimmers had: ↑MDA both trials, ↓GSH 24 h post both trials, ↑UA, bilirubin 24 h intermittent test, ↔ PC
Kabasakalis et al. 2019 [51], swimming 16 males, age 15.9 ± 1.0 years, and 16 female swimmers, age 15.4 ± 1.0 years Irisin, GSH, TAC, 8-OHdG Pre- and post of two sets of 4 × 50 m maximal freestyle swimming separated by 10 min In pooled males and females: ↑GSH, TAC at post 1 and at post 2 trials
Kyparos et al. 2009 [35], rowing 19 international level rowers, 18.5 ± 0.9 years GSH, GSSG, TAC, CAT, TBARS, PC Blood samples pre- and post a simulated 2000 m rowing race, on a rowing ergometer After test rowers had: ↓GSH/GSSG ↔GSH, ↑GSSG, TBARS, PC, TAC, CAT
Kurkcu et al., 2010 [34], basketball 7 adolescent females and 55 male adolescents, age 15.3 ± 1.8 years TAS, OSI, TOS, LOOH Pre- and post a circuit exercise program After the exercise program, athletes had: ↑TOS, OSI, ↓TAS, ↔LOOH
Maric 2018 [52], basketball 12 female athletes, age 17.8 ± 4.1 years TBARS, GSH, CAT, SOD, O2, H2O2, NO Pre- and post a continuous or HIIT aerobic training (high-intensity interval training) After continuous: ↓NO, TBARS, CAT. After HIIT: NO, ↑CAT
Nikolaidis 2007 [24], swimming 11 adolescent males and 11 females, age 11–13 years GSH, GSSG, TBARS, PC, TAC Pre- and post of 12 bouts of 50 m swimming at 70–75 %, with 1 min rest periods Post-test, in both genders: ↓GSH, GSH: GSSG, ↑GSSG, TBARS, CAT, PC, TAC
Otocka-Kmiecik et al. 2010 [42], n/a 32 physically active adolescents, age 18.4 ± 2.6 years PON, FRAP, ARE, UA, bilirubin, TBARS All participants completed a maximal exercise on a treadmill After the test sportsmen had: ↑UA, FRAP, ↔ PON, ARE, bilirubin
Otocka-Kmiecik et al. 2014 [48], n/a 26 physically active and 20 sedentary adolescents, age 17.0 ± 1.0 years PON, FRAP, UA, bilirubin, TBARS, ARE Participants performed a maximal exercise on a treadmill After test physical active adolescents had: ↑UA, FRAP, ↔ PON, ARE, bilirubin
Sopic et al. 2014 [53], soccer 16 soccer players, age 18.1 ± 0.3 years O2, MDA, SH, TAS, TOS, PAB Pre- and after a single soccer training After a single training, athletes had: ↓SH-groups, TOS, PAB, ↔O2, MDA, TAS
Tauler et al. 2008 [43], swimming 15 adolescent males, mean age of 16 years and 8 females, age of 14.7 years MDA, CI, various vitamins Pre- and post a swimming session After the session, swimmers had: ↔ PC both in boys and in girls, ↑MDA increased in boys
Tian et al. 2010 [44], athletics 12 adolescent males, age 16–17 years TBARS, GSH, UA, XO, SOD, CAT Pre-, post-, 2 h- ,4 h-, and 24 h- post of 21 km run Athletes had 2 h post: ↑UA, CAT; 4 h post: ↑UA, GSH, ↓XO; 24 h post: ↑TBARS, CAT
Tong et al. 2013 [45], athletics 10 adolescent runners, age 15.5 ± 1.3 years TBARS, XO, CAT, GSH, SOD, T-AOC Pre- and post a 21-km run, twice a year At preseason and post 21 km run, athletes had: ↓TBARS, SOD, ↔XO, CAT, T-AOC, GSH
Zalavras et al. 2015 [26], athletics 13 trained (TAD) and 11 untrained (UAD) adolescents, age 14.1 ± 1.1 years and 14.8 ± 0.9 years, respectively TAC, GSH, CAT, TBARS, PC, UA, bilirubin Athletes were monitored at pre-, post-, and 1 h post of a maximal test at the beginning of the season, after 6 (mid) and after 11 months (post) of training After test at pre-season, athletes had: post and 1 h post ↑PC, TBARS, UA, bilirubin, only post ↑CAT, TAC, and ↔GSH
  1. O2 superoxide anion radical, H2O2 hydrogen peroxide, XO xanthine oxidase, NO nitric oxide, NO2- nitrite, GSH reduced glutathione, GSSG oxidised glutathione, SH sulfhydryl groups, TBARS thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, MDA malondialdehyde, LOOH lipid hydroperoxide, PC protein carbonyls, PON paraoxonase activity-1, CI carbonyls index, AOPP advanced oxidation proteins, 8-OHdG 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, SOD superoxide dismutase, CAT catalase, GPx glutathione peroxidase, TAC total antioxidant capacity, TAS total antioxidant status, TOS total oxidative status, T-AOC total antioxidant capacity, OSI oxidative stress index, PAB pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, ARE arylesterase activity, FRAP ferric reducing ability of plasma, UA uric acid, TPAP total plasma antioxidant potential, CK creatine kinase