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Table 8 Summary of included original studies investigating ‘psychological’

From: The Influence, Barriers to and Facilitators of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rehabilitation Adherence and Participation: a Scoping Review

Author (year) Design Population Concepts investigated OMs Adherence measures
n Age (mean) Sex Activity level
Brewer et al. (2003) [73] Prospective 61 26 M 40
F 21
Competitive (57%)
Recreational (41%)
Non-athletes (3%)
Self-motivation
Athletic Identity
Social support
SMI, SSI, AIMS, BSI Rehabilitation attendance index (attended/scheduled), SIRAS, self-reported home rehabilitation adherence (0–10 scale)
Brewer et al. (2013) [75] Prospective 91 29.7 M 58
F 33
Competitive (57%)
Recreational (41%)
Non-athletes (3%)
Stress and mood
Athletic identity
Neuroticism
Pessimism
AIMS, NEO-FFI, PESS, LOT-R, POMS-B, Lysholm knee score, NPRS, daily stress 0-5 scale Self-reported home rehabilitation adherence (0–10 scale)
Brewer et al. (2000) [62] Prospective 95 26.9 M 67
F 28
Competitive (52%)
Recreational (43%)
Non-athletes (3%)
Self-motivation
Athletic Identity
Social support
SMI, SSI, AIMS, BSI, KT1000, single leg hop for distance Rehabilitation attendance index (attended/scheduled), SIRASSelf-reported rehabilitation adherence diary (0–10 scale)
Chan et al. (2003) [74] Retrospective 95 25.2 M 94
F 21
100% sport participation Autonomy
Self-motivation
HCCQ, TSRQ Combined items from the SIRAS and Modified Patient Self-Report Scales of Their Home-based Rehabilitation Adherence
Hilliard et al. (2004) [76] Prospective 108 29.4 M 72
F 36
Not stated Personality traits NEO-FF SIRAS, Rehabilitation attendance index (attended/scheduled)
Niven et al. (2012) [70] Prospective 87 29 M 65
F 28
International (10%)
National (12%)
District (14%)
Club (45%)
Recreational (18%)
Theory of planned behaviour (self-efficacy, intention) Attitudes towards ACL Rehabilitation Questionnaire Self-reported rehabilitation adherence (0–7 scale)
Rock and Jones (2002) [71] Case series 3 32 M 1
F 2
Competitive athletes Social support
Self-motivation
Counselling
SSBS, emotion scores in ERAIQ, NPRS, perceived rehabilitation completion (0-100 scale) SIRAS
Scherzer et al. (2001) [72] Prospective 54 28 M 37
F 17
Competitive (52%)
Recreational (46%)
Non-athletes (2%)
Goal setting
Imagery
Positive self-talk
Sports Injury Survey subscales (goal setting, healing imagery, positive self-talk) Rehabilitation attendance index (attended/scheduled)
Self-reported rehabilitation adherence (0-10 scale)
  1. AIMS athlete identity measurement scale, BSI brief symptom inventory, ERAIQ emotional response of athletes to injury questionnaire, HCCQ health care climate questionnaire, LOT-R the life orientation test-revised, NEO-FF neuroticism five-factor inventory, NPRS numerical pain rating scale, PESS pessimism, POMS-B negative mood–profile of mood states-B, SIRAS sports injury rehabilitation adherence scale, SMI self-motivation inventory, SSBS social support behaviours survey, SSI social support inventory, TSRQ treatment self-regulation questionnaire