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Table 2 Training or synergizing? Contrast of methodological principles

From: Training or Synergizing? Complex Systems Principles Change the Understanding of Sport Processes

Approach Training (traditional) Synergizing (complex systems)
Programs Fixed training programs Contextually sensitive methodological criteria
Performers Executers Co-designers of the process
Periodization Fixed, decontextualized Contextually sensitive
Conditioning, skill acquisition, motor abilities training Prescription-based Based on nested dependence and circular causality of constraints
Training unit Performers and their components
Players (team sports)
Performer-environment system
Team (team sports)
Short-term training plan Based on stereotyped performance solutions and movement templates Based on exploration of representative performance contexts
Training tasks Non-representative (through task decomposition) High level of representativeness (through task simplification) and beyond
Training exercises criteria Right/wrong Contextually (un)functional
Evaluation Fragmented Holistic
Role of the coach Prescribing solutions Co-discovering with the performer