Skip to main content

Table 1 Training or synergizing? Contrast of theoretical principles

From: Training or Synergizing? Complex Systems Principles Change the Understanding of Sport Processes

Approach Training (traditional) Synergizing (complex systems)
Conception of athletes/teams Machines Complex adaptive systems
Conception of sport Static entity Dynamic entity
Scientific approach Cybernetic Control Theory Dynamic Systems Theory
Relations among components Linear cause-effect Nonlinear dynamic interactions
Integrating mechanisms Control loops Circular causality
Control Internal/external programs Spontaneous synergies
Organization Externally designed Self-organized
Adaptive properties Homeostasis Homeodynamics, synergetic reorganization, degeneracy, pleiotropy
Training goal Maximizing performance attributes Satisficing diversity/unpredictability potential
Training periodization Pre-programmed Co-adapted