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Table 4 Analysis of publication bias

From: School-related physical activity interventions and mental health among children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

OutcomeNo. studiesEgger’s testDuval and Tweedie’s Trim and Filla
Studies trimmedObserved effect sizeAdjusted effect size
βSE95% CIp valueHedges g95% CIHedges g95% CI
Depressive symptoms62.2310.6280.487; 3.9760.0243− 0.006− 0.204; 0.193− 0131− 0.330; 0.068
Anxiety62.2600.782− 0.089; 4.4300.04500.3470.072; 0.6230.3470.072; 0.623
Emotional problems5− 0.6203.194− 10.786; 9.5460.8580− 0.038− 0.217; 0.141− 0.038− 0.217; 0.141
Well-being109.5113.8730.581; 18.4410.04000.8770.356; 1.3980.8770.356; 1.398
Health-related quality of life112.7611.0670.347; 5.1750.02900.084− 0.010; 0.1790.084− 0.010; 0.179
Self-esteem, self-worth100.7271.503− 2.740; 4.1940.64100.107− 0.092; 0.3070.107− 0.092; 0.307
Resilience4− 1.0053.218− 14.850; 12.8410.78400.7480.326; 1.1700.7480.326; 1.170
Positive effect5− 1.4110.999− 4.591; 1.7680.25300.055− 0.100; 0.2110.055− 0.100; 0.211
Negative effect5− 2.1584.660− 22.210; 17.930.6891− 0.325− 1.316; 0.6650.114− 2.225; 0.279
Internalising problems161.1140.921− 0.860; 3.0890.24630.015− 0.107; 0.137− 0.041− 0.167; 0.085
Positive mental health263.9151.6330.606; 7.2240.02200.4050.208; 0.6030.4050.208; 0.603
  1. aFilling looks for missing studies to the left of mean