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Table 2 Potential effect moderators

From: School-related physical activity interventions and mental health among children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

StudyIntervention focusaImplementation reachMale/female (%)Age groupbSESStudy qualityType of control group
Adab et al. [24]Body-eduLow51/49YoungerMixedModeratePE as usual
Altunkurek and Bebis [25]Body-mind-eduHigh47/53OlderNRWeakPE as usual
Ardic and Erdogan [26]Body-mind-eduNR50/50OlderMixedModerateOther activity but not physical
Azevedo et al. [27]BodyLow36/64YoungerMixedWeakPE as usual
Bremer et al. [28]BodyLow51/49YoungerNRWeakPE as usual
Breslin et al. [29]Body-eduNR51.5/48.5YoungerLowWeakWaitlist control
Casey et al. [30]Body-eduLow0/100OlderLowModeratePE as usual
Christiansen et al. [31]Body-eduHigh51/49Younger and olderMixedModeratePE as usual
Corder et al. [32]Body-eduMedium47/53OlderMixedModerateWaitlist control
Costigan et al. [33]BodyHigh69/31OlderNRStrongPE as usual
Frank et al. [34]Body-mindHigh53/47OlderLowModeratePE as usual
Ha et al. [35]BodyNR46/54YoungerNRStrongWaitlist control
Haden et al. [36]Body-mindHigh57/43YoungerMixedModeratePE as usual
Halliwell et al. [37]Body-mindHigh46/54YoungerLowModeratePE as usual
Harrington et al. [38]Body-eduLow0/100OlderMixedModeratePE as usual
Hyndman et al. [40]BodyHigh50/50YoungerNRWeakPE as usual
Höner and Demetriou [39]Body-eduHigh45/55YoungerNRModeratePE as usual
Khalsa et al. [41]Body-mindMedium58/42OlderMixedModeratePE as usual
Lubans et al. [42]Body-eduHigh0/100OlderLowModerateWaitlist control
Luna et al. [43]Body-eduHigh57/43OlderNRWeakOther physical activity
Melnyk et al. [45]Body-mind-eduHigh32/69OlderMixedWeakOther activity but not physical
Melnyk et al. [44] and Melnyk et al. [46]Body-mind-eduHigh48/52OlderMixedModerateOther activity but not physical
Moore et al. [47]Body-mind-eduHigh49/51OlderMixedStrongPE as usual and waitlist control
Noggle et al. [48]Body-mindLow43/57OlderMixedWeakPE as usual
Olive et al. [49]Body-eduHigh54/46YoungerMixedModeratePE as usual
Resaland et al. [50]BodyHigh52/48YoungerNRStrongPE as usual
Ruiz-Ariza et al. [51]BodyHigh53.3/46.7OlderMixedModeratePE as usual
Shannon et al. [52]Body-eduNR46.5/52.9YoungerLowWeakPE as usual and waitlist control
Velez et al. [53]BodyHigh57/43OlderNRWeakPE as usual
Yook et al. [54]Body-mindNR54/46YoungerNRWeakNR
  1. aBody refers to interventions aimed at improving strength or fitness, edu refers to interventions containing learning elements, mind refers to interventions aimed at strengthening mental processes
  2. bYounger refers to mean age 12 years or younger, and older refers to mean age above 12 years