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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: School-related physical activity interventions and mental health among children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

StudyStudy designPopulation, sample size, age, sex, SESName and description of interventionControl groupRelevant mental health-related outcomesMain findings in mental health outcomes as reportedComment
Adab et al. [24]cRCT (schools randomised by blocked balanced algorithm)n = 1467 (663 inta; 778 contb) students from 26 intervention schools and 28 control schools in the West Midlands region of the UK.
Age: 6–7 years (mean age: 6.3)
Sex M/F (%) = 51/49
SES: Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) median (IQR) score: 38.9 (20.1–49.5)
The WAVES study
Content: (1) Additional daily PA during school hours, (2) ‘Villa Vitality’ (interactive healthy lifestyles learning, in an inspirational setting), (3) school-based healthy cooking skills/education workshops for parents and children and (4) information to families with regard to local PA opportunities.
Duration: 30 min PA/day for 12 months
Deliverer: Research team and school staff
Content: PE as usual with educational resources provided and encouraged to use in schools (but not prescribed).
Duration: NR
Deliverer: NR
Health-related quality of life; emotional functioning scoreNo significant between-group effect on health-related quality of life. Subgroup analyses showed no evidence of heterogeneity of treatment effects by sex, ethnicity, household deprivation or baseline weight status.Data on emotional functioning score obtained from authors
Altunkurek and Bebis [25]cRCTN = 99 (33 int, 66 cont) from 2 intervention schools and 1 control school in Turkey.
Age: 12–15
Sex M/F (%): 47/53
SES: NR
Wellness coaching programme
Content: 3-part programme including PA, individual interview and group education
Duration: 90 min × 1 session/week over 12 weeks
Deliverer: wellness coach researcher
Content: No intervention Duration: NR                        Deliverer: NRWellnessSignificant between-group effect (wellness coaching group vs control group) on wellness.Data from the health education group were not used in this review.
Ardic and Erdogan [26]Q-expn = 100 (50 int; 50 cont) students from 1 intervention school and 1 control school in Istanbul, Turkey.
Age: 12–15 years (mean age: 12.8)
Sex M/F (%) = 50/50
SES: Parents with higher/lower education than secondary school (n): 55/119
T-COPE Healthy TEEN programme
Content: Healthy lifestyle information, and cognitive behavioural skill building, based on Cognitive behaviour theory (CBT), homework assignments including a journal log capturing participants’ goals and progress, daily use of pedometer
Duration: Weekly sessions a 40 min including 10–15 min PA for 15-weeks
Deliverer: Research team
Content: Health-related instructions not related to T-COPE, no PA but given instructions on how to use pedometers
Duration: 15 weeks
Deliverer: NR
Anxiety; depressionSignificant between-group effect on anxiety; no significant between-group effect on depression. 
Azevedo et al. [27]Observationaln = 497 (int: 280; cont 217) students from 5 intervention schools and 2 control schools in local urban areas in UK.
Age: 11–13 years (mean age: 11.3)
Sex M/F (%) = 36/64
SES: Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) mean (range) Intervention: 6.8 (1.5–20.3)
Control: 17.5 (5.1–30.0);
Free school meals eligibility mean (range)
Intervention: 40.8 (21.8–52.8)
Control: 27.7 (15.4–39.9)
Content: Structured delivery of dance mats into the physical education (PE) classes for six weeks. Thereafter free use of dance mats, though local authority recommended use in scheduled PE classes.
Duration: Two hours of physical education lessons per week with use of dance matts. One school provided 1 h and 40 min per week, up to 12 months.
Deliverer: School staff
Content: PE as usual
Duration: 2 h of physical education lessons per week
Deliverer: NR
Psychological well-beingSignificant between-group effect on psychological well-beingData on KIDSCREEN-10 obtained from authors
Bremer et al. [28]Q-expN = 362 (265 int, 97 cont) from 19 intervention classes and 11 control class in 7 local Catholic elementary schools in Canada.
Age: 9–14 (mean age: 11.7)
Sex M/F (%): 51/49
SES: NR
Daily physical activity programme
Content: Structure PA including jumping jacks, squats, running, body weight exercises. A 5-km fun run/walk
Duration: 20 min /day over 20 weeks
Deliverer: teachers
Content: PE as usual
Duration: NR
Deliverer: NR
Emotional problem, self-esteem, happinessNo significant between-group effect on self-esteem and happiness; no significant between-group effect on emotional problemsPoor adherence, only 4 (21%) reported daily adherence, most engaging in the programme 3–4 days/week
Breslin et al. [29]cRCTn = 741 (383 int; 357 cont) from 27 schools in Ireland.
Age: 8–9 years (mean age: 8.7 years)
Sex M/F (%) = 51.5/48.5
SES: Low SES schools identified through Multiple Deprivation Measure
Sport for LIFE: All Island.
Content: PA and healthy eating programme, based on Social cognitive theory, including goal setting, problem solving and self-monitoring.
Duration: 1 lesson per week for 12 weeks
Deliverer: Student volunteers
Content: Waitlist for the programme as well as PE as usual
Duration: NR
Deliverer: NR
Psychological well-being and HRQOLNo significant between-group effect on psychological well-beingKIDSCREEN total score obtained from authors
Casey et al. [30]cRCT (schools matched and randomised in pairs paired)n = 614 (358 int; 256 cont) students from 8 intervention schools and 8 control schools in rural and regional communities, Australia.
Age: NR (mean age: 13.4)
Sex M/F (%) = 0/100
SES: Low SES Australian rural and regional communities
Content: School PE component which incorporated student-centred teaching approaches and behavioural skill development. The PE component involved students participating in two units: sport unit (tennis or football) and recreational unit (YMCA) outside school
Duration: Two 6-session units, ranging from 57–100 min each, once a week during 12 months
Deliverer: PE teachers and coaches
Content: PE as usual 
Duration: NR
Deliverer: NR
Health-related quality of life; emotional functioningSignificant between-group effect on health-related quality of life after adjustment for baseline scoresData on emotional functioning score obtained from authors
Christiansen et al. [31]cRCT (schools randomised)2797 (1301 int, 1496 cont) from 12 intervention schools and 12 control schools.
Age: 10–13
Sex M/F (%): 51/49
SES: Family upper-middle class 41%, middle class 47%, lower-middle class 12%
Physical intervention programme
Content: (1) PE classes focusing on skill development, (2) in-class activities (massage and mindfulness), (3) break-time activities (providing bags with equipment to do PA), (4) theme days (involve students in all settings and focus on social climate for PA)
Duration: PE class = 4 class × 90 min over 1 year. In-class activities = minimum 2 × 5 min/day over 1 year. Break-time activities = 3 times × 30 min/week over 1 year. Theme day = 3 times over 1 year.
Deliverer: teachers
Content: PE as usual
Duration: 45 min/day throughout 1 year
Deliverer: teachers
Global self-worthNo significant between-group effect on global self-worth 
Corder et al. [32]cRCTn = 460 (345 int; 115 cont) students from 2 intervention schools and 1 control school in Cambridgeshire, UK.
Age: NR (mean age 13.2)
Sex M/F (%) = 47/53
SES: Mixed
GoActive
Content: Mentors (older adolescents and peer leaders) chose PA activities and students gained points for trying these and got weekly rewards. Teacher had a supportive role and was asked to encourage their class to participate and facilitate students to collect points.
Duration: Two weekly sessions during 8 weeks
Deliverer: School staff and pupils with support from research team
Content: Waitlist
Duration: NR
Deliverer: NR
Well-beingSignificant between-group effect on well-being 
Costigan et al. [33]RCTn = 65 (21 AEP (group 1); 22 RAP (group 2); 22 cont) students from 1 secondary school in new South Wales, Australia.
Age: 14–16 years (mean age: 15.8)
Sex M/F (%) = 69/31
SES: NR
Content: Physical education lessons Group 1 (AEP): HIIT sessions involving gross motor cardiorespiratory exercises (e.g. shuttle runs, jumping jacks and skipping).
Group 2 (RAP): HIIT sessions including a combination of cardiorespiratory and body weight resistance training exercises (e.g. shuttle runs, jumping jacks, skipping, combined with body weight squats and push-ups).
Duration: 24 sessions, á 8–10 min, three times per week for 8 weeks
Deliverer: Research team
Content: PE and lunchtime activities as usual
Duration: 8 weeks intervention
Deliverer: School staff
Psychological well-being; psychological distressNo significant between-group effects on psychological well-being or psychological distress 
Frank et al. [34]RCTn = 159 (80 int; 79 cont) students from 1 inner-city school in California, USA.
Age: > 13 years (mean age NR)
Sex M/F (%) = 53/47
SES: high poverty area
Transformative Life Skills (TLS)
Content: Manualized yoga programme with yoga postures, breathing techniques and centring meditation divided in four units focusing on stress management, body and emotional awareness, self-regulation and building healthy relationships
Duration: Each unit included 12 lessons delivered in 15-, 30-, or 60-min segments, 3–4 days per week. Intervention lasted one school semester
Deliverer: Yoga instructor
Content: ‘Business as usual’
Duration: NR
Deliverer: NR
Positive effect; negative effectNo significant between-groups effects on positive or negative effect 
Ha et al. [35]cRCT (schools matched and randomised in pairs paired)n = 1592 (796 int; 796 cont) students from 10 intervention schools and 10 control schools in Hong Kong, China.
Age: NR (mean age: 12)
Sex M/F (%) = 46/54
SES: NR
Coca-Cola Rope Skipping STAR Programme
Content: Rope skipping programme embedded within school PE curriculum. Package containing skipping materials, ropes, professional skipping training and ambassadors’ support during the research period. Skipping ropes and relevant materials were also available to students during recess and lunch periods.
Duration: 4-weeks
Deliverer: Research team, PE teachers, student leaders, ambassadors and coaches
Content: Waitlist, PE as usual
Duration: 4 weeks
Deliverer: Not applicable
Psychological well-being; health-related quality of lifeNo significant between-group effect on psychological well-beingData on health-related quality of life (KIDSCREEN-10) obtained from authors
Haden et al. [36]RCTn = 30 (15 int; 15 cont) students from 1 public school in New York City, USA.
Age: 10–11 years (mean age: 10.8)
Sex M/F (%) = 57/43
SES: Family income ($) categorised in 9 groups
Content: Ashtanga-informed yoga practice, consisting of physical postures, breathing practices and relaxation techniques. Home practice not prescribed but encouraged, including yoga practice.
Duration: 90 min, three times a week for 12 weeks
Deliverer: Yoga-teachers
Content: Usual PE classes, including games such as soccer, volley ball and an indoor walking programme
Duration: Same frequency and duration as the intervention group
Deliverer: PE teachers
Positive effect; negative effect; global self-worth; internalising problemsSignificant between-group effect on negative effect to the disadvantage of the intervention (yoga) group. No significant between-group effect on positive effect, global self-worth or internalising problems.No other significant changes between groups reported by authors. However meta-analysis showed significant negative effects on global self-worth and internalising problems in intervention group compared to control.
Halliwell et al. [37]RCTN = 344 (190 int, 154 cont) from 4 primary schools in South West England.
Age: 9–11 years (mean age: 9.34)
Sex M/F (%): 46/54
SES: Had an above average proportion of students with special educational needs and a below average proportion of student eligible for free school meals.
Brief yoga intervention
Content: One of 2 usual PE sessions was replaced by a yoga session. Yoga session consisted of simple yoga asanas with focus on breath and relaxation
Duration: 1 × 40 min/week over 4 weeks
Plus 1 usual PA session
Deliverer: Certified female yoga instructor
Content: PE as usual
Duration: 2 session/week
Deliverer: NR
Positive effect, negative effectNo significant between-group effect on positive and negative effect 
Harrington et al. [38]cRCTn = 1752 (867 int; 885 cont) from 20 schools in Midlands, UK.
Age: 11–14 years (mean age: 12.8 years)
Sex M/F (%) = 0/ 100
SES: free school meal eligibility, % (SD): 11.5 (6.1), and index of multiple derivation (IMD) score (SD): 6.7 (2.4). IMD score ranges between 1–10, where 1 is the least deprived and 10 the most deprived.
Girls Active
Content: A support framework for schools to change their PA, PE and sport culture including (1) a training day for teachers, including discussions and establishing of peer-leader groups and development of school action plans, (2) Information and marketing material, (3) peer girls’ leadership.
Duration: N/R
Deliverer: Youth sport trust national tutor and peer leaders in schools
Content: PE as usual
Duration: NR
Deliverer: NR
Self-esteem and HRQOLSignificant between-group effect on self-esteem at 7 month follow-up; no Significant between-group effect on self-esteem at 14 month follow-up; no Significant between-group effect on HRQOLData on HRQOL and self-esteem obtained from authors. We selected 14 month follow-up.
Hyndman et al. [40]Q-expn = 275 (123 int; 152 cont) students from 1 intervention school and 1 control school Regional Western Victoria, Australia.
Age: 5–12 years (mean age: 7 int; 8.2 cont)
Sex M/F (%) = 50/50
SES: NR
Lunchtime Enjoyment Activity and Play (LEAP)
Content: Movable/recycled materials for children to use in the school playground. There was no fixed play equipment in the school grounds during the intervention. Five materials were introduced the first week and each week thereafter a maximum of two additional types were introduced. Teacher supervision.
Duration: 30 min play at morning break and 30 min at lunchtime for 8 months
Deliverer: Not applicable
Content: Access to usual sports equipment and playground equipment and teacher supervision. No access to the movable/recycled materials.
Duration: Access to usual equipment during 15 min in the morning break and 45 min lunch break
Deliverer: Not applicable
Quality of life (only assessed in children aged 8–12 years)No between-group effects on quality of life 
Höner and Demetriou [39]Q-expn = 516 (297 int; 219 cont) students from 3 intervention schools and 4 control schools in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Age: NR (mean age: 11.9)
Sex M/F (%) = 45/55
SES: NR
Content: Health-promotion PE lessons, mainly consisting of strength and endurance training taught via games and exercises. The lessons combined age-appropriate practical training, theoretical elements and some additional components (e.g. homework and bonus points for various assignments).
Duration: 8 lessons lasting 90 min each for 8 weeks
Deliverer: PE teachers
Content: Regular PE classes offered by school, including activities such as gymnastics, swimming and traditional ball games
Duration: Same as the intervention group
Deliverer: PE teachers
Health-related quality of life (total score), emotional well-being (sub-domain), self-worth (sub-domain)No significant between-group effects on health-related quality of life, emotional well-being or self-worth (self-esteem). No significant differences between boys and girls.For economic reasons only half of the sample answered the KINDL-R questionnaire
Khalsa et al. [41]RCTn = 121 (74 int; 47 cont) students from 1 rural secondary school in Massachusetts, USA.
Age: 15–19 years (mean age: 16.8)
Sex M/F (%) = 58/42
SES: School had a 17 % low-income population
Yoga Ed programme (modified version)
Content: Simple yoga postures, breathing exercise, visualisation and games with an emphasis on fun and relaxation.
Duration: A typical session included a 5-min initial relaxation, a 5-min warm-up, 15 min of yoga poses and a 5-min closing relaxation. Each session had a theme that was discussed throughout the session by the instructor (e.g. postures, breathing, relaxation, awareness and meditation).
Participants attended 2–3 yoga sessions per week for 11 weeks. Sessions were 30–40 min long
Deliverer: Yoga instructor
Content: PE as usual
Duration: NR
Deliverer: NR
Anxiety; depression; self-esteem; test-anxiety; tension/anxiety; depression/dejection; life-satisfaction; resilienceSignificant between-group effect on resilience. No significant between-group effects on anxiety, depression or self-esteem. No significant difference between boys and girls 
Lubans et al. [42]cRCT (schools matched and randomised in pairs)n = 357 (178 int; 179 cont) students from 6 intervention schools and 6 control schools in New South Wales, Australia.
Age: 12–14 years (mean age: 13.2)
Sex M/F (%) = 0/100
SES: Schools located in low-income communities
NEAT Girls
Content: Focus on
promoting lifetime physical activities, reducing sedentary behaviours and encouraging low-cost healthy eating. Enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunchtime physical activity sessions, parental newsletters and text messaging for social support
Duration: 76 classes between 30 and 90 min long for 12 months
Deliverer: School teachers
Content: Regular PE during the intervention period. Received a condensed version of the intervention at the completion of the study (waitlist).
Duration: Same as intervention group
Deliverer: PE teachers
Global self-esteemNo significant between-group effect on self-esteem 
Luna et al. [43]cRcTn = 113 (44 int; 69 cont) students from classes in one school in Spain.
Age: 12–15 years
(mean age: 13.82)
Sex M/F (%) = 57/43
SES: NR
Content: Physical sport education programme based on a sport education model, that included practice of a sport called Ringo.
Duration: 2–3 sessions per week for 6 weeks
Deliverer: PE teacher
Content: Other physical activity, a PE model developed for the intervention based on traditional collective sports.
Duration: 2 sessions per week for 6 weeks
Deliverer: PE teacher
HRQOL, positive effect, negative effect, social anxietyNo significant between-group effect on HRQOL, positive effect and social anxiety; significant between-group effect on negative effect 
Melnyk et al. [45]cRCTn = 19 (12 int; 7 cont) students in 2 classes from 1 urban high school in a metropolitan southwest city, USA.
Age: 14–16 years (mean age: 15.5)
Sex M/F (%) = 32/68
SES: Mothers education level (n): standard college (1); partial college (1); high school graduate (1); partial high school (1); junior high school (8); under 7 years school (5); missing (2). Fathers education level (n): high school graduate (2); partial high school (4); junior high school (4); under 7 years school (6); missing (3)
The COPE teen programme
Content: The programme consisted of manualized sessions that delivered (a) educational information on leading a healthy lifestyle and (b) cognitive behavioural skills building which included practice and role playing. Content of the educational sessions included (a) creating a healthy lifestyle, (b) strategies to build self-esteem, (c) stress management, (d) goal setting, (e) effective communication, (f) nutrition and (g) physical activity. All children were also given a pedometer to wear every day.
Duration: Participants attended 2–3 50 min sessions per week with 15–20 min of physical activity, during 9 weeks with a total of 15 sessions.
Deliverer: Research team
Content: Instructions in health topics, not related to COPE TEEN, pedometers were handed out, no PA.
Duration: Same frequency and duration as the intervention group
Deliverer: NR
Anxiety; depressionNo significant between-group effect on anxiety or depression 
Melnyk et al. [44] and Melnyk et al. [46]cRCTn = 779 (374 int; 433 cont) students from 11 high schools in the southwest region of the USA.
Age: 14–16 years (mean age: 14.7)
Sex M/F (%): 48/52
SES: Schools were selected for their diversity across, e.g. economic status
The COPE TEEN programme
Content: Manualized, educational and cognitive behavioural skills building programme guided by cognitive theory with different content in each COPE session, e.g. self-esteem, stress and coping. Every session also included physical activity, e.g. dancing, walking and kick boxing movements. Daily use of pedometer, homework assignment and parental newsletter
Duration: Session lasted for 50 min including 20 min PA once a week for 15 weeks.
Deliverer: Health teachers at school
Content: Manualized content not related to COPE TEEN concentrating on common health issues for adolescents, a manual with homework assignments focusing on the topics being covered in class. Parent newsletter sent home to the parents 4 times during the programme.
Duration: Same as intervention group
Deliverer: Not applicable
Anxiety; depressionNo significant between-group differences on anxiety or depression 
Moore et al. [47]RCTN = 283 (125 int, 158 cont) from 5 secondary schools in NSW Australia.
Age: 12–14 years (mean age: 12.76)
Sex M/F (%) = 49/51
SES: High 25%, high average 30%, low average 17%, low 28%
Martial arts based intervention
Content: Face-to-face group session including: (1) Psycho-education, (2) Warm-up activities (jogging, push-ups, sit-ups), (3) Stretching, (4) Technical martial arts practice and (5) one of the 3 activities pattern practice (choreographed sequence of movements)/ Sparring (tai-chi sticking hand exercise)/ Meditation
Duration: 1x 50 min session/week over 10 weeks
Deliverer: a registered psychologist and a 2nd Dan/level black-belt taekwondo instructor
Content: Delayed intervention Duration: NR              Deliverer: NREmotional difficulties, resilience, self-efficacySignificant between-group effect on resilience and self-efficacy; no significant between-group effect on emotional difficulties 
Noggle et al. [48]cRCTn = 51 (36 int; 15 cont) students from 3 classes in 1 public high school in rural western Massachusetts, USA.
Age: NR (mean age: 17.2)
Sex M/F (%) = 41/59
SES: 16.4 % students of the whole school were considered low-income
Content: Kripalu-based yoga programme including 4 key elements of classical yoga: physical exercises and postures, breathing exercises, deep relaxation and meditation techniques. Each session had a theme that was discussed throughout the session by the instructor (e.g. postures, breathing, relaxation, awareness, values and principles).
Duration: 30–40 min yoga session, structured to include a 5-min centring, a 5 min warm-up, 15 min of yoga postures/exercises and a 5 min closing relaxation. Participants attended 2–3 yoga sessions a week for 10 weeks (28 yoga session total).
Deliverer: Yoga instructors
Content: PE as usual
Duration: 30–40 min classes, 2–3 times a week for 10 weeks
Deliverer: School PE instructor
Tension-anxiety; depression-dejection; positive effect; negative effect; life purpose and satisfaction; resilienceSignificant between-group effect on tension-anxiety (subscale) and negative effect. No significant between-group effect on depression-dejection, resilience or positive effect. 
Olive et al. [49]cRCT (schools randomised using computer-generated random numbers)n = 821 (445 int; 376 cont) from 13 intervention schools and 16 control schools in the Australian Capital Territory.
Age: 7–12 years (mean age: 8.1)
Sex M/F (%) = 54/46
SES: Participating schools were in suburbs with SES index higher than the average index of all towns and cities throughout Australia
Specialist-taught Physical education
Content: Face-to-face PE lessons, programmed into the school curriculum. Including 5 movement tasks: (1) coordination and agility drills, (2) skill activities, (3) movement challenges and games, (4) dynamic movement control, (5) core movement.
Duration: 2 × 50-min sessions/ week over 4 years of elementary school.
Deliverer: specialist teachers trained by Bluearth Foundation
Content: PE as usual
Duration: 150 min/week PE
Deliverer: generalist classroom teacher
DepressionNo significant between-group effect on depressionWe selected 12-month follow-up for comparability
Resaland et al. [50]cRCTn = 1229 (620 int/ 582 cont) randomised, 1129 at baseline (596 int; 533 cont) in 57 schools (28 int schools; 29 cont schools) in Norway.
Age: 10 years, (mean age: 10.2 years)
Sex M/F (%) =
Int 52.7/47.3
Cont: 51.4/48.6
SES: NR
Active Smarter Kids (ASK)
Content: 165 extra (in addition to usual PE) teacher-led PA per week that included: PA lessons in the playground (90 min/week), PA breaks during academic lessons (25 min/ week) and PA homework (50 min/ week)
Duration: 7 months
Deliverer: Teachers at school
Content: PE as usual Duration: 135 min/ week Deliverer: NR Psychological well-being and HRQOLNo significant between-group effect on psychological well-beingData on HRQOL obtained from authors
Ruiz-Ariza et al. [51]RCTn = 214 included final sample 184 ( 90 int; 94 cont) students from 4 secondary schools in Andalucia, Spain.
Age: 12–14 years (mean age: 13.73)
Sex M/F (%) = 53.3/46.7
SES: Mother’s educational level and maternal work
Content: Cooperative high-intensity training (C_HIIT), 4 min warm-up (running, sideways movements and dynamic stretching) 16 min of C-HIIT in four series of exercise, including cardiorespiratory, speed-agility and coordinative training exercises.
Duration: 2 × 16 min (20 min including warm-up) sessions per week over 16 weeks.
Deliverer: PE teachers
Content: PE as usual with static stretching Duration: NR Deliverer: NRWell-beingSignificant between-group effect on well-beingData on well-being obtained from authors
Shannon et al. [52]Q-expn = 155 (84 int; 71 cont) from 2 schools in Ireland.
Age: 8–9 years (mean age: 8.7 years)
Sex M/F (%) = 46.5/ 52.9 (data were missing from one child, therefore the total is less than 100)
SES: Low SES schools identified through Multiple Deprivation Measure
Healthy Choices Programme based on Self-determination theory.
Content: discussions and physical tasks about health benefit of PA, and a ‘Daily Mile’ in addition to usual PE
Duration: Weekly hour-long practical sessions, and 15-min walks per day. In total 2 h and 15 min per week for 10 weeks
Deliverer: Trained sport student volunteers and classroom teacher
Content: Waitlist for the programme as well as usual PE
Duration: NR
Deliverer: NR
HRQOLNo significant between-group effect on HRQOL (total score)Data on Psychological well-being requested from authors, but not obtained. KIDSCREEN total score used for HRQOL
Velez et al. [53]RCTn = 31 (16 int; 15 cont) students from 1 predominantly Hispanic high school in USA
Age: 14–18 years (mean age: 16.14).
Sex M/F (%) = 57/43
SES: NR
Content: Supervised guided resistance training programme
Duration: At least 30 sessions (3 days/week for 12 weeks), 35–40 min each
Deliverer: Researchers
Content: PE as usual and health class
Duration: Same as intervention group
Deliverer: Researchers
Self-concept (global self-worth)Significant between-group effect on global self-worth 
Yook [54]RCTn = 46 (23 int; 23 cont) students from elementary schools in Seoul, Korea.
Age: NR (mean age: 11)
Sex M/F (%) = 54/46
SES: NA
Content: Combination of yoga, various running activities and kinball (the latter activities named ‘new sport’)
Duration: New sport consisted of warm-up (5 min), the main programme (25 min) and cool down (10 min). Both the yoga and new sport activities were separately practised once per week for about 40 min per session. The intervention lasted 8 weeks with running activities the first 4 weeks and Kinball the last 4 weeks.
Deliverer: NR
Content: NR
Duration: NR
Deliverer: NR
Happiness, resilience; self-esteemNo significant between-group differences in happiness, resilience or self-esteem. No significant differences between boys and girls.Authors did not combine girls and boys. Meta-analysis identified significant differences between intervention and control group on all outcomes when combining girls and boys.