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Table 4 Clinical trials investigating the effect of CBD on cognitive and psychomotor function in healthy individuals

From: Cannabidiol and Sports Performance: a Narrative Review of Relevant Evidence and Recommendations for Future Research

Citation Study design Participants Treatment(s) Cognitive tasks Treatment effect
Karniol et al. (1974) [98] DB (PC); BSD I: 5 M; 21–34 y
I: 5 M; 21–34 y
I: 5 M; 21–34 y
C: 5 M; 21–34 y
I: Oral 15 mg
I: Oral 30 mg
I: Oral 60 mg
Time estimation taska 15 mg CBD sig. altered the ETI (without FB) at 45 and 95 min. 60 mg CBD sig. altered the ETI (without FB) at 95 and 180 min. No other sig. differences were observed.
Dalton et al. (1975) [49] DB; WSD 15 M; 21–24 y Vaporised 150 μg·kg-1 Wobble board
Pursuit meter
Delayed auditory feedback
“Pegs”
Standing steadiness, hand-eye coordination, cognition and manual coordination were unchanged from baseline 5–85 min post-tx
Leweke et al. (2000) [111] SB; WSD 9 M; 26–35 y Oral 200 mg Binocular depth inversion Depth inversion scores were unchanged from baseline 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 24 h post-tx.
Bogwardt et al. (2008) [22] DB (PC); WSD 15 M; 27 ± 6 y Oral 600 mg Go/No-Go Task Reaction time and accuracy were unaffected between ~1 and 2 h post-tx.
Bhattacharyya et al. (2009) [17] DB (PC); WSD 15 M; 27 ± 6 y Oral 600 mg Verbal memory task Word recall was unaffected ~1–2 h post-tx.
Palo Fusar-Poli et al. (2009) [67] DB (PC); WSD 15 M; 27 ± 6 y Oral 600 mg Facial emotion recognition Reaction time and accuracy were unaffected ~1–2 h post-tx.
Hindocha et al. (2015) [86] DB (PC); WSD 48 (34 M); ~22 y Vaporised 16 mg Facial emotion recognition CBD sig. improved emotion recognition at 60% intensity 10 min post-tx. Recognition at 20, 40, 80 and 100% intensity were unaffected.
Hundal et al. (2017) [90] DB (PC); BSD I: 16 (8 M); 26 ± 9 y
C: 18 (8 M); 25 ± 8 y
Oral 600 mg Symbol coding
Digit span (forward and reverse)
Verbal learning task
Digit-symbol recoding, forward digit span, reverse digit span, immediate recall and delayed recall were unaffected 135 min post-tx.
Arndt & de Wit (2017) [8] DB (PC); WSD 38 (19 M); 24 ± 4 y Oral 300, 600
and 900 mg
Emotional stroop
Facial emotion recognition
Attentional bias task
Reaction time, emotion recognition and attentional bias were unaffected 3–4 h post-tx.
Birnbaum et al. (In Press) [19] No blind; WSD 8 (6 M); 49 y Oral 300 mg Phonemic and semantic fluency
Digit span
Trail making test (A & B)
Symbol–digit modality task
Test scores were unchanged from baseline 2.5 h post-tx (test outcomes not specified)
Spindle et al. (In Press) [160] DB (PC); WSD 18 (9 M); 31 ± 6 y Oral 100 mg and Vaporised 100 mg Digit symbol substitution
Divided attention task
Paced serial addition task
Speed and accuracy of digit symbol substitution and paced serial addition, as well as speed, accuracy and tracking on the divided attention task were unaffected between 0.5 and 8 h post-tx.
  1. BSD between-subject design, C control group, CBD cannabidiol, DB double-blind, ETI estimated time interval, FB feedback, I intervention group, M male subjects, PC placebo-controlled, SB single-blind, Tx treatment, WSD within-subject design
  2. The “Treatment effects” described are in comparison to a placebo condition, unless otherwise stated
  3. aTime estimation task: participants were asked to produce a 60 s interval 10 times. The first 5 estimations were without feedback and the remaining 5 were with feedback. This task was repeated 45, 95. and 180 min post-treatment