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Table 3 Clinical trials investigating the effect of CBD on subjective anxiety

From: Cannabidiol and Sports Performance: a Narrative Review of Relevant Evidence and Recommendations for Future Research

Citation Study design Participants Treatment(s) Context Treatment effect
Healthy participants
Zuardi et al. (1993) [207] DB (PC); BSD I: 10; 23 y
C: 10; 23 y
Oral 300 mg Public speaking (90 min post-tx) CBD sig. reduced SA post-public speaking. SA prior to, in anticipation of, and during speaking were unaffected.
Crippa et al. (2004) [45] DB (PC); BSD I: 5 M; 30 ± 5 y
C: 5 M; 30 ± 5 y
Oral 400 mg Low stress CBD sig. reduced SA 60 and 75 min post-tx.
Bhattacharyya et al. (2010) [18] DB (PC); WSD 15 M; 27 ± 6 y Oral 600 mg Low stress SA was unaffected 1, 2 and 3 h post-tx.
Martin-Santos et al. (2012) [123] DB (PC); WSD 16 M; 26 ± 5 y Oral 600 mg Low stress SA was unaffected 1, 2 and 3 h post-tx.
Hindocha et al. (2015) [86] DB (PC); WSD 48; 22 y Vaporised 16 mg Low stress SA was unaffected 2, 30, 60. 90 and 120 min post-tx.
Zuardi et al. (2017) [208] DB (PC); BSD I: 12 (6 M); 23 ± 3 y
I: 11 (5 M); 23 ± 3 y
I: 12 (6 M); 23 ± 3 y
C: 12 (6 M); 22 ± 2 y
I: Oral 100 mg
I: Oral 300 mg
I: Oral 900 mg
Public speaking
(150 min post-tx)
300 mg CBD sig. reduced SA compared to 900 mg CBD (but not placebo) during public speaking. SA prior to, in anticipation of, and post-speaking were not affected by any treatment.
Linares et al. (2019) [116] DB (PC); BSD I: 15 M; 24 ± 3 y
I: 15 M; 25 ± 3 y
I: 12 M; 23 ± 3 y
C: 15 M; 25 ± 4 y
I: Oral 150 mg
I: Oral 300 mg
I: Oral 600 mg
Public speaking
(90 min post-tx)
300 mg CBD (but not 150 or 600 mg) sig. reduced SA during public speaking. SA prior to, in anticipation of, and post-speaking were not affected by any treatment.
Clinical populations
Crippa et al. (2011) [44] DB (PC); WSD
SAD Participants
10 M; 24 ± 4 y Oral 400 mg Low stress CBD sig. reduced SA 60, 75 and 140 min post-Tx.
Bergamaschi et al. (2011) [15] DB (PC); BSD
SAD Participants
I: 12 (6 M); 23 ± 2 y
C: 12 (6 M); 23 ± 2 y
Oral 600 mg Public speaking
(90 min Post-Tx)
CBD sig. reduced SA during public speaking. SA prior to, in anticipation of, and post-speaking were not affected.
Hundal et al. (2017) [90] DB (PC); BSD
High Trait Paranoia
I: 16 (8 M); 26 ± 9 y
C: 18 (8 M); 25 ± 8 y
Oral 600 mg Virtual reality
(130 min Post-Tx)
SA was unaffected.
Masataka (2019) [124] DB (PC); BSD
SAD Participants
I: 17 (8 M); 18–19 y
C: 20 (8 M); 18–19 y
Oral 300 mg·d-1 (28-days) Low stress CBD sig. reduced SA 4-weeks post-tx.
  1. BSD between-subject design, C control group, CBD cannabidiol, DB double-blind, I intervention group, M male subjects, PC placebo-controlled, SAD social anxiety disorder, SA subjective anxiety, SB single-blind, Tx treatment, WSD within-subject design
  2. The “Treatment effects” described are in comparison to a placebo condition, unless otherwise stated