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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in the parallel group and in the crossover studies meta-analysis

From: Effect of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on Sport Performance Indices in Healthy People: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

AuthorStudy designSample sizePopulation typeAge of participants (in years)Type of interventionType of exercise, measured outcome(s)
Parallel-group design studies
 Donnelly et al. [28]Double-blind crossover*32Men, healthy untrained volunteers18 to 30Ibuprofen 1.2 g or placebo 30 min before exerciseMuscle force: isometric contractions
Maximum voluntary contraction force (N)
Endurance time at 50% of isometric maximal voluntary contraction force (s) at 6 h (first period)—muscle soreness VAS at 6 h
 Hasson et al. [30]Double-blind10Men and women, healthy23.8 ± 4.3Ibuprofen 400 mg or placebo—4 h before exerciseMuscle force: eccentric contractions
Eccentric peak torque (Newton meters) (4 h after drug intake)
 Semark et al. [40]Single-blind25Men, active in rugby union and field hockey19 ± 3Flurbiprofen 40 mg or placebo patch on each quadriceps—12 h before exerciseRunning: 30 m maximal sprints
Acceleration during a sprint over 5–10 m (ms−2) at 0 h
Muscle pain (VAS) at 12 h
 VanHeest et al. [42]Double-blind24Men, moderately fit healthy subjects18 to 34Ibuprofen 200 mg or placebo 4 times a day 24 h before exerciseMuscle force: eccentric seated knee flexion
VO2 max during a run on a treadmill (ml kg min−1) at 48 h—pain score (VAS) at 24 h
 Przybyłowski et al. [38]Single-blind19Men, non-smoking21 to 23Aspirin 0.5 g or placebo BID before the exercise and 1 intake 3–4 h before the testCycling on a bicycle ergometer until exhaustion (min)
Maximal work load (watt) at 3–4 h after last drug intake
 Tokmakidis et al. [41]Double-blind19Men and women healthy24.6 ± 3.9Ibuprofen 400 mg or placebo one intake just before strength measurementMuscle force: eccentric contractions
Maximal strength 1RM on an eccentric leg curl exercise (kg)
Muscle soreness (VAS) at 24 h
 Rahnama et al. [39]Open22Men, non-athletic24.3 ± 2.4Ibuprofen 400 mg or placebo 1 h before exerciseMuscle force: isometric contractions
Maximum eccentric contraction (% of baseline volume) at 24 h
 Trappe et al. [43]Double-Blind25Men and women older adults64 ± 1Ibuprofen 400 mg TID or placeboMuscle force: isotonic concentric
Increase in muscle strength (kg)
 Meamarbashi et al. [35]Double-blind27Men, young healthy non-active students18.2 ± 0.4Indomethacin 25 mg or placebo TID during 1 week before exerciseMuscle force: isometric contractions
Maximum isometric force (N) at 24 h—muscle pain (Talag Scale) at 24 h
 Da Silva et al. [26]Double-blind20Men healthy military long-distance runners18.8 ± 0.4Ibuprofen 1.2 g or placebo 1 h before exerciseMuscle force: concentric and eccentric running using a treadmill and a metabolic cart to determine the maximal oxygen uptake (˙VO2 max)
- Time to exhaustion
- Rating of perceived exertion (RPE)
 Duff et al. [29], NCT01886196.Factorial double-blind90(30 included in meta-analysis)Women postmenopausal64.8 ± 4.3Ibuprofen 400 mg after exercise training only (maximum3 times per week) for 9 months or placebo
Resistance training vs flexibility training (placebo exercise)
Muscle force: eccentric and concentric
Strength biceps curl (kg)
 Lilja et al. [34], NCT02531451.Single-blind31Men and women Healthy18 ± 35Ibuprofen 1200 mg control group receiving low dose (75 mg) acetylsalicylicMuscle force: concentric and eccentric
Peak power for the flywheel device
 De Souza et al. [27]Randomized trial parallel groups20
Primary outcome available for 12 subjects
Men participants in the 42 km Trail Running Challenge41.1 ± 8.8Ibuprofen 400 mg or placebo 15 min before the beginning of the race, after 5 h of racing if not yet completeLong-distance running
Counter movement jump performance
Finish time (time to exhaustion)
Crossover design studies
 Lisse et al. [17]Double-blind17Men, healthy regular runners24 to 59Aspirin 650 mg or placebo 30 min before exercise; wash-out 24 hRunning the subjects’ usual distance 7 times
Mean time for a 3.2 km run (min)
 Roi et al. [18]Single-blind18
Primary outcome available for 9
Men, young athletes24.7 ± 2.6Aspirin 1000 mg or placebo 30 min before exercise; wash-out, 1 weekBicycle exercise
Maximum work load (watt) during a at 60 rpm
 Lecompte et al. [33]Double-blind20Men, healthy recreationally active24.0 ± 3.5Naproxen 500 mg or placebo BID during 1 day before exercise; wash-out, 1 weekMuscle eccentric exercise
Muscle strength (eccentric peak torque) 60°/s for the exercise leg (kg m) at day 3
 Braun et al. [24]Open-label10Men well-trained distance runnersUnknownIndomethacin 50 mg PO, or no treatment—TID during 2 days before exercise; wash-out, 2 weeksTreadmill running
VO2 (%VO2 max) mean data for measurements made after 4, 20, 40, and 59 min of running
 Olsen et al. [37]Open-label10Men, healthy21 to 33 (mean 24)Indomethacin 100 mg or no treatment PO—10 h just before exercise; wash-out period, 7 daysBicycle exercise at 60 rev./min
Maximum work load (watt) and VO2 at 75% of the individual VO2 max (mL/min) during an exercise session
 Baldwin et al. [23]Double-blind15Men and women, old, healthy60 ± 2Naproxen 220 mg or placebo TID for 10 daysMuscle isometric exercise
Maximal isometric force
Muscle soreness
 Hudson et al. [31]Double-blind15Men college-aged22.0 ± 1.3Aspirin 10–10.4 mg/kg or placebo 1 h before testingMuscular concentric and eccentric
Perceived exertion
Perceived pain index
 Krentz et al. [32]Counter-balanced, double-blind18Men and women24Ibuprofen 400 mg or placebo immediately after training daily for 5 weeksMuscular concentric
Muscle soreness
 Correa et al. [25]Double-blind12Men, regularly trained22.8 ± 3.2Ibuprofen 1.2 g or placebo 1 h before trainingMuscle concentric and eccentric exercise
 Morgan et al. [36], part ADouble-blind13Men, physically active7Ibuprofen 400 mg (combined with 600 mg maltodextrin) or 1000 mg of maltodextrin (placebo) orally, 134 min prior to the exerciseMuscle force: isokinetic
Peak MVC (N m)
  1. TID three times a day, BID two times a day, VAS visual analog scale VO2max, MVC maximum voluntary contraction
  2. *Crossover studies for which data were available at the end of the first period were included in the parallel-group meta-analysis