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Table 4 Characteristics of collisions during match-play recorded by detection from microtechnology units by studies reporting mild, moderate, and heavy collisions

From: Quantifying the Collision Dose in Rugby League: A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Critical Analysis

Study Microtechnology provider (device) Competition (season[s]) Group (variable) Positional group Type of collision recorded Frequency of collisions (n=)
mean (±SD)
Relative frequency of collisions (n min−1=)
mean (±SD)
Mild Moderate Heavy Total Mild Moderate Heavy Total
Gabbett et al. [31] Catapult (minimaxX) NRL (2008–2009)   Hit-up forwards Collisions 2.0 (NR) 20.0 (NR) 15.0 (NR) 37.0 (NR) 0.06 (NR) 0.56 (NR) 0.41 (NR) 1.02 (NR)
    Wide-running forwards Collisions 2.0 (NR) 12.0 (NR) 14.0 (NR) 28.0 (NR) 0.03 (NR) 0.27 (NR) 0.28 (NR) 0.59 (NR)
    Adjustables Collisions 1.0 (NR) 14.0 (NR) 15.0 (NR) 30.0 (NR) 0.02 (NR) 0.21 (NR) 0.23 (NR) 0.45 (NR)
    Outside backs Collisions 5.0 (NR) 10.0 (NR) 2.0 (NR) 16.0 (NR) 0.03 (NR) 0.20 (NR) 0.25 (NR) 0.48 (NR)
Gabbett [23] Catapult (minimaxX) NRL (NR)   Forwards Collisions 0.2 (0.50) 10.1 (4.80) 13.0 (4.3) 23.3 (7.6) 0.01 (0.01) 0.20 (0.09) 0.27 (0.08) 0.47 (0.13)
    Adjustables Collisions 0.5 (0.8) 6.5 (3.5) 9.4 (4.5) 16.4 (6.5) 0.01 (0.01) 0.09 (0.06) 0.13 (0.06) 0.23 (0.10)
    Outside backs Collisions 0.2 (0.6) 4.3 (2.8) 11.9 (4.3) 16.4 (6.1) 0.01 (0.01) 0.06 (0.04) 0.15 (0.05) 0.21 (0.07)
  NYC (NR)   Forwards Collisions 0.6 (0.8) 7.4 (6.3) 10.3 (4.7) 18.3 (10.5) 0.01 (0.01) 0.13 (0.07) 0.21 (0.08) 0.35 (0.11)
    Adjustables Collisions 0.3 (0.5) 8.3 (6.1) 10.7 (2.9) 19.3 (6.7) 0.01 (0.01) 0.13 (0.11) 0.15 (0.04) 0.29 (0.14)
    Outside backs Collisions NR 6.0 (3.3) 8.8 (8.2) 14.8 (9.1) NR 0.08 (0.03) 0.11 (0.10) 0.19 (0.10)
Gabbett [47] Catapult (minimaxX S4) QCup (2012)   Forwards Collisions NR NR NR 44.0 (13.0) NR NR NR 0.77 (0.19)
    Adjustables Collisions NR NR NR 29.0 (9.0) NR NR NR 0.35 (0.10)
    Outside backs Collisions NR NR NR 22.0 (8.0) NR NR NR 0.27 (0.10)
    Hookers Collisions NR NR NR 40.0 (13.0) NR NR NR 0.64 (0.16)
Gabbett [48] Catapult (minimaxX S4) QCup (2012) Match-play Team Collisions 4.6 (4.5) 21.7 (10.5) 6.5 (3.8) 32.9 (13.7) 0.06 (0.06) 0.27 (0.13) 0.08 (0.05) 0.41 (0.17)
   Ball-in-play Team Collisions 4.6 (4.5) 21.7 (10.5) 6.5 (3.8) 32.9 (13.7) 0.09 (0.09) 0.44 (0.21) 0.13 (0.08) 0.67 (0.28)
Gabbett et al. [24] Catapult (minimaxX) NRL (NR) Match-play Team Collisions 3.0 (2.3) 19.0 (4.7) 15.0 (2.3) 37.0 (5.8) 0.06 (0.02 ) 0.34 (0.12) 0.26 (0.06) 0.68 (0.18)
    Hit-up forwards Collisions 4.0 (3.7) 22.0 (11.0) 16.0 (4.9) 42.0 (15.9) 0.09 (0.10) 0.58 (0.21) 0.43 (0.12) 1.09 (0.32)
    Wide-running forwards Collisions 4.0 (4.9) 24.0 (9.8) 17.0 (6.1) 45.0 (17.1) 0.07 (0.06) 0.39 (0.15) 0.29 (0.09) 0.76 (0.18)
    Adjustables Collisions 4.0 (4.1) 19.0 (11.0) 11.0 (6.9) 34.0 (16.5) 0.07 (0.07) 0.33 (0.22) 0.20 (0.10) 0.58 (0.36)
    Outside backs Collisions 2.0 (2.8) 12.0 (5.5) 14.0 (5.5) 28.0 (12.4) 0.03 (0.03) 0.17 (0.08) 0.20 (0.07) 0.38 (0.15)
   Training—repeated high intensity efforts Team Collisions 5.0 (6.8) 20.0 (13.5) 1.0 (1.7) 26.0 (15.2) 0.13 (0.12) 0.54 (0.42) 0.02 (0.05) 0.69 (0.47)
   Training—games Team Collisions 4.0 (4.5) 5.0 (4.5) 2.0 (2.2) 13.0 (9.0) 0.31 (0.27) 0.38 (0.31) 0.12 (0.13) 0.81 (1.12)
   Training—skills Team Collisions 8.0 (5.7) 15.0 (5.7) 3.0 (2.8) 26.0 (11.3) 0.10 (0.06) 0.20 (0.06) 0.04 (0.03) 0.29 (0.06)
Gabbett and Seibold [52] Catapult (minimaxX S4) QCup (NR)   Backs Collisions NR NR NR 26.0 (5.0) NR NR NR 0.3 (0.1)
     Forwards Collisions NR NR NR 32 (8) NR NR NR 0.7 (0.2)
Gabbett et al. [53] Catapult (minimaxX) NRL (NR) Higher aerobic fitness Team Collisions NR NR NR 45.2 (13.4) NR NR NR 0.92 (0.34)
   Lower aerobic fitness Team Collisions NR NR NR 34.5 (18.3) NR NR NR 0.63 (0.15)
Hulin et al. [35] Catapult (Optimeye S5) NRL (NR)   Team Collisions NR NR NR 47.5 (10.5) NR NR NR NR
Hulin et al. [55] Catapult (minimaxX S4) NRL (2014) Higher success Hit-up forwards Collisions NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 0.84 (0.27)
    Adjustables Collisions NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 0.79 (0.25)
    Outside backs Collisions NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 0.36 (0.07)
   Lower success Hit-up forwards Collisions NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 0.69 (0.19)
    Adjustables Collisions NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 0.45 (0.31)
    Outside backs Collisions NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 0.32 (0.12)
Johnston et al. [56] Catapult (minimaxX S4) International Student Competition (NR)   Team Tackles NR NR NR 18.96* (4.97) NR NR NR 0.19* (0.03)
Kempton et al. [58] GPSports (SPI-Pro) NRL (2010–2011)   Team Tackles NR NR NR (NR) NR NR NR 0.6 (NR)
      Ball carries NR NR NR 10.3 (NR) NR NR NR 1.1 (NR)
Kempton et al. [42] GPSports (SPI-Pro X) NRL (2012) Lower success Team Collisions NR NR NR 22.2 (15.8) NR NR NR 0.4 (0.5)
  NRL (2014) Higher success Team Collisions NR NR NR 18.6 (26.1) NR NR NR 0.3 (0.6)
Murray et al. [61] Catapult (minimaxX) NRL (NR) Shorter recovery Team Collisions NR NR NR 43.0 (4.0) NR NR NR 0.7 (0.1)
   Medium recovery Team Collisions NR NR NR 35.0 (2.0) NR NR NR 0.6 (0.1)
   Longer recovery Team Collisions NR NR NR 38.0 (4.0) NR NR NR 0.8 (0.1)
Varley et al .[16] Catapult (minimaxX) NRL (2009–2010)   Team Collisions 0.3 (0.6) 7.5 (5.0) 11.1 (4.2) 18.9 (8.1) 0.00 (0.00) 0.13 (0.11) 0.19 (0.10) 0.33 (0.16)
Weaving et al. [7] Catapult (Optimeye S5) SL (2017) 1st half Hit-up forwards Collisions NR NR NR 9.7 (2.6) NR NR NR NR
    Adjustables Collisions NR NR NR 5.5 (3.3) NR NR NR NR
    Outside backs Collisions NR NR NR 5.1 (2.6) NR NR NR NR
    Fullback Collisions NR NR NR 5.2 (3.0) NR NR NR NR
    Wide-running forwards Collisions NR NR NR 8.9 (2.7) NR NR NR NR
   2nd half Hit-up forwards Collisions NR NR NR 9.1 (2.8) NR NR NR NR
    Adjustables Collisions NR NR NR 5.2 (3.2) NR NR NR NR
    Outside backs Collisions NR NR NR 4.9 (2.5) NR NR NR NR
    Fullbacks Collisions NR NR NR 5.7 (3.6) NR NR NR NR
    Wide-running forwards Collisions NR NR NR 8.2 (2.7) NR NR NR NR
  1. Collisions collisions are reported but not differentiated into tackles and/or ball carries, Impacts impacts are reported based on g forces acting on the accelerometer, NR not reported, NRL National Rugby League, NYC National Youth Competition, QCup Queensland Cup, SL Super League, Team results for the entire team. *Data mean (±SD) were derived from individual games results