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Table 2 Theme-wise research opportunities and applications of human performance modeling

From: A survey of mathematical models of human performance using power and energy

ThemesResearch opportunities and applications
Groups versus individualsModels derived from the data pertaining to a group of individuals may not accurately model performance of athletes outside the group, thus, suggesting a need for individual specific models [87].
Influence of mathematical modeling on WUnderstanding of W′ is still ambiguous as it is dependent on the model used [34, 55,56,57, 59,60,61]. Quantifying the natural day-to-day/trial-to-trial variability within subjects, i.e., IIV, may yield a better understanding of W′.
Natural variability within an individualMethods need to be developed to quantify the IIV associated with physiological parameters, which will be useful in measuring training effectiveness, developing higher fidelity models, and optimizing performance.
Recovery of WCurrent models described in [83,84,85,86,87,88] need refinement and improvement. A robust model for recovery of W′ is needed, which could be athlete-specific. The W′ balance can potentially be correlated to fatigue related injuries and the risk of injury could be estimated.
Performance optimizationThe recovery model in conjunction with the two-parameter model enables optimization of time-trial performance as illustrated in [95, 100] and illustrated in [91, 92].
Wearable sensor integrationWearable sensors provide opportunities in real-time performance tracking, optimization, and methods to reduce the reliance on laboratory equipment. Similar to studies in [101, 102], commercially available sensors could be validated against laboratory equipment and used in the field for developing higher fidelity models.
Integration of individual performance modeling into team performanceAthlete-specific models could be used in determining team strategies, training interventions, planning training needs, and team selection as illustrated in [91, 97].
Physical exertion and healthModels of human performance could be used to gain insight into the effect of physical exertion on overall health and well-being as discussed in [16, 17].