Skip to main content

Table 6 Co-contraction results of AD/TB, VL/BF, and AT/MG respectively, in the different walking speeds. Values presented by mean and SE. *Significant differences in pre- and post-training moments between groups. Different lower case letters represent significant differences between speeds. Significant differences between pre- and post-training moments of each group

From: Nordic walking training in elderly, a randomized clinical trial. Part II: Biomechanical and metabolic adaptations

VariableSpeedFW pre (mean ± SE)FW post (mean ± SE)NW pre (média ± SE)NW post (média ± SE)GroupTimeSpeedGroup*timeGroup*speedTime*speedGroup*time*speed
p
Co-Contraction AD/TB1 km h−152.01 ± 7.2149.33 ± 5.2060.36 ± 5.9147.06 ± 7.690.6000.0220.6800.1200.2180.7160.591
2 km h−156.28 ± 6.5350.45 ± 5.3154.40 ± 5.2545.28 ± 4.22
3 km h−153.99 ± 4.5848.66 ± 5.3954.96 ± 5.7834.77 ± 6.19
4 km h−148.81 ± 5.0651.07 ± 4.8958.01 ± 4.0642.84 ± 5.58
5 km h−153.86 ± 6.3751.07 ± 4.5754.92 ± 4.7037.39 ± 3.66
Co-Contraction
VL/BF
1 km h−146.66 ± 4.2145.63 ± 4.4145.05 ± 4.4648.91 ± 5.960.5020.9390.2440.9910.4020.1140.527
2 km h−140.35 ± 4.2744.55 ± 3.8846.66 ± 3.5350.37 ± 5.04
3 km h−142.36 ± 4.7645.34 ± 4.5347.17 ± 2.7847.06 ± 3.93
4 km h−148.94 ± 3.0448.37 ± 4.7351.74 ± 1.4848.68 ± 3.13
5 km h−150.11 ± 2.6845.94 ± 3.9849.55 ± 2.8346.19 ± 3.65
Co-Contraction
AT/MG
1 kmh−138.05 ± 2.91a*45.00 ± 4.26a*32.99 ± 1.76a*39.81 ± 2.63a*0.1690.365< 0.0010.8800.0120.6490.436
2 km h−136.55 ± 4.11a*39.06 ± 3.76b*30.72 ± 1.57a*34.13 ± 1.93ab*
3 km h−133.90 ± 4.32a*35.95 ± 2.70b*30.68 ± 1.44a*31.75 ± 2.36b*
4 km h−133.64 ± 4.08a*34.07 ± 2.69b*30.46 ± 2.22a*31.42 ± 2.06b*
5 km h−130.99 ± 4.16b*28.35 ± 2.80c*27.48 ± 2.11a*28.22 ± 1.68b*