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Table 5 Results of mean amplitude of AD, TB, VL, BF, AT, and MG muscles in the different walking speeds presented in mean and SE, values in millivolts. Different lower case letters represent significant differences between speeds. *Significant differences between groups in pre- or post-training. Significant difference between pre- and post-training moment within each group

From: Nordic walking training in elderly, a randomized clinical trial. Part II: Biomechanical and metabolic adaptations

VariableSpeedFW pre (mean ± SE)FW post (mean ± SE)NW pre (Média ± SE)NW post (média ± SE)GroupTimeSpeedGroup*timeGroup*speedTime*speedGroup*time*speed
p
Mean amplitude AD1 km h−14.39 ± 0.66a*6.26 ± 1.85a*5.15 ± 1.02a*5.49 ± 1.77a*0.1080.3140.0030.7460.0060.2660.021
2 km h−15.86 ± 1.80a*5.49 ± 1.24a*2.89 ± 0.59b*4.92 ± 1.43a*
3 km h−16.60 ± 2.03a*6.63 ± 1.61a*3.90 ± 0.84b*5.68 ± 1.67a*
4 km h−15.09 ± 1.14a*8.63 ± 2.17a*3.54 ± 0.69b*5.39 ± 1.89a*
5 km h−17.85 ± 1.72b*9.78 ± 2.21b*3.44 ± 0.53b*5.72 ± 1.70a*
Mean amplitude TB1 km h−13.87 ± 0.59a6.15 ± 1.48a6.91 ± 2.13a4.80 ± 1.23a0.6140.9670.0200.9480.4980.1930.083
2 km h−15.37 ± 1.16a7.90 ± 3.04a7.19 ± 2.99a6.70 ± 1.75b
3 km h−18.35 ± 2.82b9.81 ± 3.49b6.47 ± 2.55a7.99 ± 1.61b
4 km h−111.67 ± 4.02c9.11 ± 3.13b7.65 ± 3.76a8.65 ± 1.76bc
5 km h−114.15 ± 4.15c9.46 ± 2.73b8.10 ± 2.18b8.10 ± 1.80b
Mean amplitude VL1 km h−16.12 ± 0.95a6.21 ± 0.79a8.75 ± 2.84a8.52 ± 2.30a0.4250.302< 0.0010.3520.4270.6190.330
2 km h−17.17 ± 1.56a7.45 ± 0.92a8.10 ± 1.88a9.20 ± 2.29a
3 km h−19.27 ± 2.19a8.53 ± 1.04a10.19 ± 2.34b13.7 ± 3.70b
4 km h−113.20 ± 2.28b12.84 ± 1.65b10.54 ± 2.06b17.3 ± 4.07b
5 km h−114.36 ± 2.75b15.87 ± 1.81b15.51 ± 3.61c20.4 ± 5.37c
Mean amplitude BF1 km h−17.87 ± 2.07a*11.20 ± 3.01a*5.99 ± 1.18a*4.19 ± 1.23a*0.0450.645< 0.0010.7910.2700.7460.620
2 km h−110.67 ± 2.47a*10.42 ± 1.54a*7.14 ± 1.45a*5.60 ± 1.62a*
3 km h−111.10 ± 2.40a*10.91 ± 1.70a*10.15 ± 3.04b*7.32 ± 2.23b*
4 km h−115.46 ± 3.87b*14.16 ± 1.95b*9.74 ± 1.66b*9.13 ± 2.67b*
5 km h−121.11 ± 5.91c*17.54 ± 2.59c*12.03 ± 1.86c*11.50 ± 3.27c*
Mean amplitude AT1 km h−112.53 ± 2.97a14.20 ± 2.62a12.24 ± 1.56a9.67 ± 2.350.1270.228< 0.0010.3820.0820.4390.764
2 km h−114.33 ± 2.98a16.91 ± 3.93b17.52 ± 2.20b13.16 ± 3.33
3 km h−116.54 ± 3.23b17.86 ± 2.84b19.27 ± 2.93b14.21 ± 3.32
4 km h−121.95 ± 4.20c22.11 ± 3.20c24.34 ± 3.12c17.38 ± 4.12
5 km h−128.97 ± 5.87d28.16 ± 3.93d31.37 ± 4.04d23.73 ± 5.24
Mean amplitude MG1 km h−111.94 ± 2.23a12.91 ± 2.10a15.06 ± 2.42a10.40 ± 2.48a0.1960.391< 0.0010.4630.6270.0580.179
2 km h−112.85 ± 2.49a15.65 ± 3.16b16.13 ± 2.50a13.08 ± 3.19b
3 km h−115.27 ± 3.37b15.59 ± 2.27b16.19 ± 2.73a14.51 ± 3.34b
4 km h−116.89 ± 3.16b19.16 ± 2.77c20.19 ± 2.93b14.89 ± 3.46b
5 km h−120.62 ± 4.70c19.99 ± 2.89c22.28 ± 3.16b16.77 ± 3.63c