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Table 4 Results from GEE model effect tests for mechanical work variables. Results presented by mean and SE. Different low case letters represent that there were difference between speeds. * symbol represents that there was difference between NW and FW groups in the different moments. € symbol represents that there were differences between pre- and post moments within each group.

From: Nordic walking training in elderly, a randomized clinical trial. Part II: Biomechanical and metabolic adaptations

VariableSpeedFW pre (mean ± SE)FW post (mean ± SEFW pre (mean± SE)FW post (mean ± SE)GroupTimeSpeedGroup*timeGroup*speedTime*speedGroup*time*speed
p
Wext (J kg−1 m−1)1 km h−10.192 ± 0.12a*0.193 ± 0.12a0.188 ± 0.18a*0.176 ± 0.13a0.3540.837< 0.0010.0490.9500.2590.010
2 km h−10.212 ± 0.11a*0.196 ± 0.07a0.215 ± 0.04a*0.220 ± 0.18a
3 km h−10.216 ± 0.12a*0.205 ± 0.13a0.216 ± 0.11a*0.216 ± 0.08a
4 km h−10.208 ± 0.16a*0.178 ± 0.11a0.195 ± 0.10a*0.201 ± 0.07a
5 km h−10.181 ± 0.18a*0.151 ± 0.15b0.160 ± 0.14b*0.155 ± 0.13b
Wint (J kg−1 m−1)1 km h−10.048 ± 0.04a0.050 ± 0.04a0.062 ± 0.04a0.062 ± 0.04a0.2340.383< 0.0010.3830.4210.3850.579
2 km h−10.075 ± 0.04a0.067 ± 0.06a0.081 ± 0.05bc0.085 ± 0.01b
3 km h−10.089 ± 0.05b0.085 ± 0.06c0.096 ± 0.04c0.101 ± 0.04c
4 km h−10.116 ± 0.04c0.110 ± 0.05d0.109 ± 0.01d0.113 ± 0.06d
5 km h−10.117 ± 0.01c0.111 ± 0.05d0.123 ± 0.05e0.122 ± 0.05d
Wtot (J kg−1 m −1)1 km h−10.268 ± 0.15a0.258 ± 0.13a0.275 ± 0.21a0.254 ± 0.16a0.2330.384< 0.0010.3820.5820.3330.390
2 km h−10.309 ± 0.13b0.310 ± 0.11b0.303 ± 0.07a0.329 ± 0.28ab
3 km h−10.340 ± 0.12b0.490 ± 0.63bc0.339 ± 0.12a0.347 ± 0.07b
4 km h−10.459 ± 0.44c0.367 ± 0.13b0.349 ± 0.19ab0.382 ± 0.09bc
5 km h−10.404 ± 0.13bc0.386 ± 0.95b0.386 ± 0.16b0.391 ± 0.14c
Wint_trunk (J kg−1 m−1)1 km h−10.0027 ± 0.001a0.0024 ± 0.001a0.0026 ± 0.002a0.0026 ± 0.001ab0.2170.204< 0.0010.3290.3010.5470.024
2 km h−10.0017 ± 0.001a0.0018 ± 0.001b0.0022 ± 0.001ab0.0027 ± 0.002ab
3 km h−10.0015 ± 0.001ab0.0021 ± 0.002ab0.0021 ± 0.003ab0.0021 ± 0.001a
4 km h−10.0016 ± 0.002ab0.0019 ± 0.001b0.0017 ± 0.001c0.0020 ± 0.001a
5 km h−10.0022 ± 0.001a0.0022 ± 0.001ab0.0023 ± 0.001a0.0024 ± 0.001b
Wint_arms (J kg−1 m−1)1 km h−10.005 ± 0.071a*0.009 ± 0.019a0.015 ± 0.030a*0.017 ± 0.013a0.1810.865< 0.0010.0320.0230.4360.874
2 km h−10.019 ± 0.038b*0.012 ± 0.046a0.020 ± 0.037b*0.025 ± 0.070ab
3 km h−10.017 ± 0.030b*0.015 ± 0.033a0.021 ± 0.036b*0.024 ± 0.052ab
4 km h−10.027 ± 0.049c*0.020 ± 0.036b0.022 ± 0.040b*0.027 ± 0.052ab
5 km h−10.023 ± 0.032c*0.019 ± 0.027b0.027 ± 0.045c*0.034 ± 0.058c
Wint_legs (J kg−1 m−1)1 km h−10.040 ± 0.019a0.038 ± 0.021a0.044 ± 0.021a0.043 ± 0.020a0.2340.384< 0.0010.3830.5360.4680.469
2 km h−10.053 ± 0.023b0.053 ± 0.029b0.058 ± 0.020b0.057 ± 0.054b
3 km h−10.071 ± 0.021c0.068 ± 0.036c0.073 ± 0.019c0.074 ± 0.015c
4 km h−10.087 ± 0.025d0.088 ± 0.024d0.085 ± 0.065d0.083 ± 0.021d
5 km h−10.081 ± 0.063d0.089 ± 0.024d0.093 ± 0.023e0.090 ± 0.024e
R (%)1 km h−132.46 ± 3.07a35.40 ± 2.45a33.5 9 ± 4.07a34.89 ± 4.41a0.2880.085< 0.0010.2670.7020.0650.671
2 km h−137.85 ± 2.26a35.54 ± 2.38a40.45 ± 3.36a39.73 ± 4.02a
3 km h−145.26 ± 3.44b46.95 ± 2.42b49.08 ± 2.73bc48.72 ± 3.05bc
4 km h−150.39 ± 3.42b56.83 ± 2.70c58.07 ± 3.35d59.16 ± 2.10d
5 km h−163.97 ± 4.45c69.57 ± 1.62d70.65 ± 2.68e72.43 ± 2.46e