Skip to main content

Table 4 Overview of intervention studies with assessment of combined training and the effect upon COD-performance

From: Effect of Different Physical Training Forms on Change of Direction Ability: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Combined training
Author and yearNumber (n) of subjects and mean ageLevel and sportWeek tr./tr per weekExperimental group, improvement (seconds)Control group, improvement (seconds)Improvement, percent (%)Effect size (ES)Training intervention,
experimental group.
(S) series and
(R) repetitions per session
COD-test
1) Length (meter)
2) Number of CODs
3) Degrees° of CODs
Plyometric + COD
Keller et al. [42]EG, n = 12
Age: 14 ± 0.8
Men, Young Soccer4/2Pre: 6.5 ± 0.3
Post: 6 ± 0.5
NoneEG: 7.69%EG, ES = 1.25Horizontal load training. Lateral and forward jumps, Slalom, Zig-zag running and sidesteps drills. S:4–7 R:5Modified T test
1) 18 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 90 ° and 2 × 180 °
de Hoyo et al. [77]EG, n = 9
Age: 18 ± 1
Men, Jr Soccer, elite- level8/2Pre: 4.94 ± 0.18 Post:4.94 ± 0.19NoneEG: 0%EG, ES = 0Different unilateral CMJ, Hurdle jump and ankle jump + COD, S:1–3, R:3-4Zig-zag test
1) 20 m
2) 3
3) 100 °
Beato et al. [86]EG, n = 21
Age: 17 ± 0.8
Men, Jr, Soccer6/2Pre: 4.72 ± 0.13
Post: 4.73 ± 0.12
NoneEG: -0.211%EG, ES = -0.08COD (45° and 90°, 180°) + P (DJ + Hurdle jump).36 COD, 60 jumps505-agility test
1) 10 m
2) 1
3) 180 °
Fernandez-Fernandez et al. [99]EG, n = 8
Age 12.9 ± 0.4
Men,
Young Elite, Tennis
5/3Pre: 2.75 ± 0.16
Post: 2.71 ± 0.16
NoneEG: 1.45%EG, ES = 0.25Before training. Plyometrics, acceleration, deceleration and ladder drills (COD drills)505-agility test
1) 10 m
2) 1
3) 180
Fernandez-Fernandez et al. [99]EG, n = 8
Age 12.9 ± 0.4
Men,
Young Elite, Tennis
5/3Pre: 3.03 ± 0.05
Post: 3.05 ± 0.06
NoneEG: -0.66%EG, ES = -0.36After training. Plyometrics, acceleration, deceleration and ladder drills (COD drills)505-agility test
1) 10 m
2) 1
3) 180 °
Hammami et al. [100]EG, n = 14
Age: 14.5 ± 0.3
CG, n = 14
Age: 14.6 ± 0.2
Men, Young Handball8/2Pre: 7.17 ± 0.36
Post: 6.79 ± 0.28
Pre: 7.14 ± 0.21
Post: 7.11 ± 0.23
EG: 5.30%
CG: 0.42%
EG, ES = 1.19
CG, ES = 0.14
Lateral jump + COD, lateral hurdle jumps + COD, horizontal jumps + COD, hurdle jumps + COD. 48–144 jumps per weekModified T test
1) 20 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 90 ° and 2 × 180 °
Makhlouf et al. [101]EG, n = 20
Age: 11.29 ± 0.85
CG, n = 16
Age: 10.98 ± 0.8
Men, Young Elite Soccer8/2Pre: 18 ± 0.6
Post: 17.43 ± 0.6
Pre: 18.38 ± 0.6
Post: 18.28 ± 1
EG: 3.17%
CG: 0.54%
EG, ES = 0.95
CG, ES = 0.12
Agility + Plyometric S:1–3 R: 8–15.
CMJ, DJ, Horizontal jumps, lateral jumps, ankle jumps, hurdle jumps, rebound jumps. A variety of agility exercises.
Illinois agility-test
1) 60 m
2) 9
3) 4 × 180 ° and 4 × 60 °
Strength + COD
Torres-Torrelo et al. [78]EG, n = 12
Age: 22.9 ± 5.1
CG, n = 10
Age: 24.7 ± 4.7
Men, Futsal6/2Pre:7.93 ± 0.36
Post:7.80 ± 0.23
Pre:7.83 ± 0.31
Post:7.96 ± 0.35
EG: 1.64%
CG: -1.66%
EG, ES = 0.44
CG, ES = -0.39
Squat (45%–48% of 1RM) S:2–3, R:4–6 + COD: 2–5V-Cut test
1) 25 m
2) 4
3) 45 °
Strength + COD + plyometric + sprint
Paul et al. [96]EG, n = 7
Age: 16.4 ± 0.7
Men Young Soccer4/5Right turn:
Pre: 3.89 ± 0.1
Post: 3.88 ± 0.1
Left turn:
Pre: 3.91 ± 0.1
3.88 ± 0.1
NoneRight turn:
EG: 0.26%
Left turn:
EG: 0.77%
Right turn:
EG, ES = 0.10
Left turn:
EG, ES = 0.30
Two strength and power sessions, one speed and agility session and one injury prevention session per week.Modified L-run
1) 20 m
2) 1
3) 90 °
Strength + COD + sprint
Gil et al. [102]EG, n = 9
Age: 22.0 ± 2.2
Prof. Men, Soccer6/1Pre: 5.83 ± 0.2
Post: 5.44 ± 0,19
NoneEG:6.2%EG, ES = 1.6Resisted Sprint, S:4, R:6, with elastic bands+ squat jump (60% of 1 RM), S:4–6, R:6Zig-zag test
1) 20 m
2) 3
3) 100 °
Gil et al. [102]EG, n = 9
Age: 22.8 ± 4.3
Prof. Men, Soccer6/1Pre: 5.70 ± 0.1
Post: 5.36 ± 0.14
NoneEG:6.1%EG, ES = 1.6Sprint without loads S:2–4, R:4, 7 m + squat jump (60% of 1 RM) S:4–6, R:61) 20 m
2) 3
3) 100 °
Plyometric + sprint training
Loturco et al. [54]EG, n = 11
Age: 21.7 ± 2.4
Prof.
Men, Soccer
5/2Pre: 5.93 ± 0.15
Post: 5.78 ± 0.19
NoneEG: 2.53%EG, ES = 0.88Resisted Sprint, R:6–8(20–30 m) with various loads + squat jump, S:3–8, R:4–6Zig-zag test
1) 20 m
2) 3
3) 100°
Brocherie et al. [103]EG, n = 8
Age: 17.1 ± 0.3
Youth football players5/2Pre: 6 ± 0.1
Post: 5.85 ± 0.14
 EG: 2.5%EG, ES = 1.25Sprints, CODs, shuttle sprints and high intensive running performed in hypoxia. S: 2–6, R: 3–6.Repeated-sprint agility
1) 20 m
2) 3
3) 2 × 90 ° and 1 × 180 °
Brocherie et al. [103]EG, n = 8
Age: 17.1 ± 0.2
Youth football players5/2Pre: 6.14 ± 0.16
Post: 5.9 ± 0.14
 EG: 3.91%EG, ES = 1.6Sprints, CODs, shuttle sprints and high intensive running performed in normoxia. S: 2–6, R: 3–6.Repeated-sprint agility
1) 20 m
2) 3
3) 2 × 90 ° and 1 × 180 °
Plyometric + strength training
Faigenbaum et al. [60]EG, n = 13
Age: 13.4 ± 0.9
Young Men, 12 – 15 år6/2Pre:5.6 ± 0.18
Post:5.4 ± 0.18
NoneEG: 3.57%EG, ES = 1.134 different jumps over 6 weeks. S:1–2, R:6–10 per jump- condition
+ different strength exercises,
S:2–3, R:10–12
Pro agility shuttle run
1) 18.2 m
2) 3
3) 2 × 90 ° and 1 × 180 °
Makhlouf et al. [101]EG, n = 21
Age: 11.06 ± 0.75
CG, n = 16
Age: 10.98 ± 0.8
Men, Young Elite Soccer8/2Pre: 18.16 ± 0.8
Post: 17.69 ± 0.8
Pre: 18.38 ± 0.6
Post: 18.28 ± 1
EG: 2.59&
CG: 0.54%
EG, ES = 0.59
CG, ES = 0.12
Strength + Plyometric S:1–3 R:8–15
Variations of squats and lunge exercises, and hip trust.
Illinois agility-test
1) 60 m
2) 9
3) 4 × 180 ° and 4 × 60 °
Ramirez-Campillo et al. [104]EG, n = 9
Age: 17.6 ± 0.5
Men, Young Soccer8/2Pre: 5.67 ± 0.29
Post: 5.46 ± 0.2
NoneEG: 3.70%EG, ES = 0.86Strength and plyometric bilateral group
Training knee extensor and flexors.
(S:1–3 R:3–10)
Modified T test
1) 18 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 90 ° and 2 × 180 °
Ramirez-Campillo et al. [104]EG, n = 9
Age: 17.3 ± 1.1
Men, Young Soccer8/2Pre: 5.8 ± 0.29
Post: 5.67 ± 0.16
NoneEG: 2.24%EG, ES = 0.58Strength and plyometric unilateral group
Training knee extensor and flexors.
(S:1–3 R:3–10)
Modified T test
1) 18 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 90 ° and 2 × 180 °
Plyometric + strength + sprint
Tous-Fajardo et al. [84]EG, n = 12
Age: 17 ± 0.5
Men Young Soccer11/1Pre: 6.94 ± 0.12
Post: 6.9 ± 0.16
NoneEG: 0.58%EG, ES = 0.29Conventional combined strength training. Strength plyometric and sprint exercises.V-Cut test
1) 25 m
2) 4
3) 45 °
Otero-Esquina et al. [105]EG, n = 12
CG, n = 12
Age: 17.0 ± 1.0
Men, Soccer, Jr- elite7/1Pre: 6.66 ± 0.20 Post:6.51 ± 0.18Pre: 6.63 ± 0.20
Post:6.46 ± 0.20
EG: 2.25%
CG:2.56%
EG, ES = 0.79Squat, S:3, R:4–6,
Leg- curl
Sledge run, 3–5 R, 20% of BM
V-Cut test
1) 25 m
2) 4
3) 45 °
Otero-Esquina et al. [105]EG, n = 12
CG, n = 12
Age: 17.0 ± 1.0
Men, Soccer, Jr- elite7/2Pre: 6.80 ± 0.42
Post: 6.46 ± 0.25
Pre: 6.63 ± 0.20
Post:6.46 ± 0.20
EG:5%
CG:2,56%
EG, ES = 1.01
CG, ES = 0.85
Squat, S:3, R:4–6
Leg- curl
Sledge run, 3–5 R, 20% of BM
1) 25 m
2) 4
3) 45 °
Arazi [69]EG, n = 8
Age: 20.8 ± 0.7
Young Women6/2Pre: 14.3 ± 0.9
Post: 13.2 ± 0.9
NoneEG: 7.6%EG, ES = 1.1Depth jump, multiple jumps, zigzag drill and lunge jump.
S: 3, R: 6
T test
1) 40 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 90 ° and 2 × 180 °
Arazi [69]EG, n = 7
Age: 20.7 ± 0.7
Young
Women
6/2Pre: 13.4 ± 1.1
Post: 12.3 ± 0.9
NoneEG: 8.2%EG, ES = 1.1Compound training. Day 1: Depth jump, multiple jumps, zigzag drill and lunge jump. Day 2: Half squat, knee extension, knee flexion, single leg lunge. S: 3, R: 6T test
1) 40 m
2) 4
3) 2 × 90 ° and 2 × 180 °
  1. Abbreviations: Tr: Training; CODs: Change of new directions; Pre: Pre-test; Post: Post-test; EG: Experimental group; CG: Control group; None: Control group not provided; BM: Body mass