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Table 5 Static lift significant result comparisons

From: The Biomechanics and Applications of Strongman Exercises: a Systematic Review

 Winwood et al. [39]Renals et al. [37]McGill et al. [35]Keogh et al. [33], McGill et al. [35]
165 mm diam logBarbell clean and press250 mm diam log316 mm diam logBarbell push pressLog liftAtlas stoneTire flip
Temporal
 Duration (s)7.96 ± 3.77 (TD)6.20 ± 1.96 (TD)0.22 ± 0.02(PR)0.22 ± 0.02(PR)0.22 ± 0.03 (PR)0.38 ± 0.17 (SP)(HP)
0.67 ± 0.06 (TD)0.64 ± 0.07 (TD)0.54 ± 0.47 (TD)1.49 ± 0.92 (SP)(LP)
Kinematic
 Dip depth (cm)17.4 ± 4.40 (PP)18.0 ± 6.60 (PP)14.0 ± 3.00* (PP)13.0 ± 2.00* (PP)17.0 ± 4.00 (PP)
 Vertical lift velocity (m/s)0.60 ± 0.10* (FP)0.75 ± 0.15 (FP)
1.06 ± 0.41* (SP)1.69 ± 0.15 (SP)
0.88 ± 0.07 (PP)0.97 ± 0.08 (PP)0.64 ± 0.07* (PP)0.62 ± 0.06* (PP)0.74 ± 0.07 (PP)
 Hip angle (°)52.0 ± 6.00* (LO)60.0 ± 6.00 (LO)
182 ± 5.00* (TR)158 ± 15.0 (TR)
 HIP ROM (°)126 ± 9.00* (EL)116 ± 10.0 (EL)
 Knee angle (°)99.0 ± 25.0* (SSP)140 ± 11.0 (SSP)
139 ± 11.0* (TR)125 ± 13.0 (TR)
 Trunk angle (°)106 ± 2.00* (TR)91.0 ± 6.00 (TR)
93.0 ± 5.00* (BD)87.0 ± 2.00 (BD)
 Trunk ROM (°)83.0 ± 8.00* (EL)67.0 ± 12.0 (EL)
Kinetic
 Braking mean force (N)680 ± 262 (PP)625 ± 252* (PP)775 ± 317 (PP)
 Braking impulse (N.s)116 ± 28.7* (PP)106 ± 27.8* (PP)131 ± 27.3 (PP)
 Braking mean power (W)− 943 ± 281* (PP)− 854 ± 276* (PP)− 1090 ± 283 (PP)
 Mean posterior force (N)− 67.0 ± 14.0* (EL)− 91.0 ± 27.0 (EL)
 Propulsive mean force (N)3230 ± 357* (PP)3130 ± 363* (PP)3400 ± 492 (PP)
 Propulsive impulse (N.s)307 ± 56.8 (PP)346 ± 66.8 (PP)255 ± 38.8* (PP)241 ± 28.7* (PP)293 ± 40.0 (PP)
 Propulsive mean power (W)1920 ± 591* (PP)2960 ± 802 (PP)2040 ± 377* (PP)1900 ± 295* (PP)2470 ± 482 (PP)
 Musc ant/post shear (N)2800§2600§
 Musc comp load (N)7500§8800§
 Musc ax twist stiff (Nm/rad)25,300§31,400§
 Musc flex/ext stiff (Nm/rad)32,400§38,600§
Muscle activation (%MVC)
 Right rectus abdominis27.3 ± 27.877.6 ± 41.687.8 ± 63.9
 Right external oblique61.5 ± 49.197.6 ± 67.7107 ± 45.4
  1. All data are reported as means ± standard deviation, unless specified otherwise. *Significant difference to barbell, significant difference to log lift, significant difference to tire flip, significant difference to lower performing athletes, §value only provided in graph form and as such are approximate values with no standard deviation, Ant/post anterior/posterior, ax axial, BD bottom of dip, comp compressive, diam diameter, EL entire lift, flex/ext flexion/extension, FP first pull, HP higher performing athlete, LO lift off, LP lower performing athlete, musc muscle, MVC maximum voluntary contraction, PP push press phase, PR propulsive duration, SP second pull, SSP start of second pull, stiff stiffness, TD total lift duration, TR top retrieve phase