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Table 4 Pulling significant results comparisons—heavy sled pull

From: The Biomechanics and Applications of Strongman Exercises: a Systematic Review

 Winwood et al. [38]Keogh et al. [32]
Heavy sled pullEffect sizeBack squatHigher performerLower performerEffect sizeGroup ave.
Spatiotemporal
 Ground contact time (s)0.35 ± 0.04 (MVP)− 0.850.33 ± 0.04 (MVP)0.76 ± 0.37 (MVP)− 1.630.48 ± 0.23 (MVP)
0.38 ± 0.03 (AP)0.42 ± 0.19 (AP)0.57 ± 0.23 (AP)− 0.710.53 ± 0.32 (AP)
 Stride rate (s)1.42 ± 0.14 (MVP)0.071.63 ± 0.12 (MVP)1.10 ± 0.42 (MVP)1.721.37 ± 0.39 (MVP)
1.41 ± 0.14 (AP)1.50 ± 0.55 (AP)1.29 ± 0.37 (AP)0.451.45 ± 0.50 (AP)
 Swing time (s)0.33 ± 0.04 (MVP)0.390.29 ± 0.03 (MVP)0.27 ± 0.05 (MVP)0.490.28 ± 0.04 (MVP)
0.31 ± 0.06 (AP)0.28 ± 0.07 (AP)0.23 ± 0.05 (AP)0.820.25 ± 0.06 (AP)
 Stride length (m)1.29 ± 0.17 (MVP)1.811.29 ± 0.26 (MVP)0.80 ± 0.16 (MVP)2.271.03 ± 0.26 (MVP)
1.00 ± 0.15 (AP)0.85 ± 0.25 (AP)0.65 ± 0.04 (AP)1.120.74 ± 0.28 (AP)
Kinematic
 Average velocity (m/s)1.83 ± 0.22 (MVP)2.442.08 ± 0.08 (MVP)0.99 ± 0.50 (MVP)3.041.61 ± 0.55 (MVP)
1.39 ± 0.13 (AP)1.22 ± 0.20 (AP)0.79 ± 0.32 (AP)1.611.04 ± 0.30 (AP)
 Knee angle at FS (°)114 ± 6.00 (MVP)1.38132 ± 9.00 (MVP)112 ± 22.0 (MVP)1.19124 ± 18.0 (MVP)
103 ± 9.00(AP)125 ± 12.0 (AP)110 ± 10.0(AP)1.36116 ± 13.0 (AP)
 Knee angle at TO (°)138 ± 14.0 (MVP)0.35153 ± 7.00 (MVP)148 ± 10.0(MVP)0.59149 ± 9.00 (MVP)
133 ± 14.0 (AP)148 ± 14.0 (AP)138 ± 17.0 (AP)0.65141 ± 15.0 (AP)
 Thigh angle at FS (°)23.0 ± 5.00 (MVP)19.0 ± 5.0 (MVP)0.8021.0 ± 5.00 (MVP)
14.0 ± 10.0 (AP)16.0 ± 8.00 (AP)− 0.2215.0 ± 10.0 (AP)
 Trunk angle at FS (°)61.0 ± 13.0 (MVP)− 0.6741.0 ± 7.00 (MVP)8.00 ± 29.0 (MVP)1.5626.0 ± 24.0 (MVP)
77.0 ± 30.0 (AP)29.0 ± 17.0 (AP)2.00 ± 16.0 (AP)1.6414.0 ± 21.0 (AP)
 Trunk angle at TO (°)61.0 ± 11.0 (MVP)− 0.4941.0 ± 9.00 (MVP)14.0 ± 25.0 (MVP)1.5928.0 ± 21.0 (MVP)
69.0 ± 20.0 (AP)31.0 ± 15.0 (AP)10.0 ± 14.0 (AP)1.4519.0 ± 19.0 (AP)
Kinetic
 Mean anterior GRF (N)555 ± 107* (SC to MKE)6.6343.0 ± 22.0 (SC to MKE) 
 Peak anterior GRF (N)810 ± 174* (SC to MKE)5.13126 ± 73.0 (SC to MKE) 
 Mean vertical GRF (N)1330 ± 364* (SC to MKE)− 2.382580 ± 648 (SC to MKE) 
 Peak vertical GRF (N)1740 ± 463* (SC to MKE)− 1.853500 ± 1270 (SC to MKE) 
 Mean resultant ant/post force (N)271 ± 89.0 (MVP)− 1.95
526 ± 162 (AP)
 Mean resultant med/lat force (N)− 5.00 ± 22.0 (MVP)− 1.75
24.0 ± 8.00 (AP)
  1. All data are reported as means ± standard deviation, unless specified otherwise. Spatiotemporal and kinematic effect sizes reported for between phase [37] and between performance standard [32]. Kinetic effect sizes reported for between exercise (heavy sled pull vs back squat). A positive effect size indicates that the left-hand column (higher performer or heavy sled pull) or top row (maximum velocity phase) had a greater value than the respective right-hand column (lower performer or back squat) or bottom row (acceleration phase).*Significant difference to back squat, significant difference to low performing athletes, significant difference to acceleration phase, ant/post anterior/posterior, AP acceleration phase, ave average, FS foot strike, GRF ground reaction force, med/lat medial/lateral, MVP maximum velocity phase, SC to MKE start of concentric phase to maximum knee extension, TO toe off