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Table 3 Significant differences in muscle activation and kinetic outcomes between the walking/carrying exercises

From: The Biomechanics and Applications of Strongman Exercises: a Systematic Review

 Farmer’s walk [35]LH suitcase carry [35]RH suitcase carry [35]Yoke walk [35]
Muscle activity (%MVC)
 Left upper erector spinae77.6 ± 29.347.1 ± 6.2032.4 ± 4.60*69.3 ± 17.5
 Right upper erector spinae91.4 ± 54.724.9 ± 17.6*‡☼52.1 ± 17.365.6 ± 14.4
 Left lower erector spinae106 ± 51.131.6 ± 10.1*‡☼77.4 ± 21.379.2 ± 10.2
 Right lower erector spinae144 ± 36.796.9 ± 20.444.1 ± 9.10*†☼107 ± 31.5
 Left latissimus dorsi169 ± 55.4*97.4 ± 55.768.9 ± 23.251.9 ± 26.4
 Right latissimus dorsi152 ± 26.7*65.3 ± 6.2091.4 ± 39.145.5 ± 31.7
 Left external oblique39.3 ± 30.612.6 ± 5.30*‡☼61.5 ± 21.947.5 ± 31.7
 Right external oblique50.4 ± 17.465.1 ± 24.429.0 ± 17.8*†☼58.8 ± 17.4
 Right rectus abdominis13.3 ± 3.8014.6 ± 4.505.60 ± 1.80*22.3 ± 18.1
 Right gluteus maximus114 ± 70.378.2 ± 39.550.5 ± 31.2*113 ± 52.1
 Right gluteus medius108 ± 66.964.1 ± 38.757.3 ± 23.6*108 ± 69.7
 Right bicep femoris54.0 ± 13.731.2 ± 7.50*‡☼48.3 ± 8.661.7 ± 6.30
 Right rectus femoris77.4 ± 35.641.1 ± 9.20*56.5 ± 11.5*107 ± 23.5†‡
Kinetic
 Muscular anterior/posterior shear (N)2800168011601890
 Muscular compressive load (N)79005800*67007800
 Muscular axial twist stiffness (Nm/rad)27,200†‡19,10024,60025,900
 Muscular flexion/extension stiffness (Nm/rad)35,60024,000*27,50038,600
  1. All data are reported as means ± standard deviation, unless specified otherwise. *Significant difference to yoke walk, significant difference to left-hand suitcase carry, significant difference to right-hand suitcase carry, significant difference to farmer’s walk, LH left hand, MVC maximum voluntary contraction, RH right hand