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Table 2 Walking/carrying results comparisons—farmer’s walk

From: The Biomechanics and Applications of Strongman Exercises: a Systematic Review

 Winwood et al. [7]Keogh et al. [34]
Farmer’s walkUnloaded walkEffect sizeHigher performerLower performerEffect sizeGroup ave.
Spatiotemporal
 Ground contact time (s)0.46 ± 0.06* (MVP)0.67 ± 0.06 (MVP)− 3.500.29 ± 0.02 (MVP˟)0.34 ± 0.03 (SVP˟)− 1.960.30 ± 0.03 (MVP)
0.53 ± 0.09*(AP)0.77 ± 0.07 (AP)− 3.000.39 ± 0.04 (AP)0.32 ± 0.03 (AP)1.980.36 ± 0.04 (AP)
 Stride rate (Hz)1.42 ± 0.17* (MVP)0.88 ± 0.06 (MVP)4.202.01 ± 0.13 (MVP˟)1.83 ± 0.04 (SVP˟)1.881.97 ± 0.13 (MVP)
1.21 ± 0.12* (AP)0.82 ± 0.04 (AP)4.401.88 ± 0.10 (AP)1.64 ± 0.12 (AP)2.171.79 ± 0.14 (AP)
 Stride length (m)1.04 ± 0.12* (MVP)1.43 ± 0.11 (MVP)− 3.401.83 ± 0.04 (MVP˟)1.40 ± 0.17 (SVP˟)3.481.67 ± 0.10 (MVP)
0.85 ± 0.19* (AP)1.33 ± 0.11 (AP)− 3.101.38 ± 0.16 (AP)1.33 ± 0.09 (AP)0.391.32 ± 0.12 (AP)
 Average velocity (m/s)1.48 ± 0.19 (MVP)1.26 ± 0.15 (MVP)1.283.66 ± 0.17 (MVP)2.83 ± 0.36 (MVP)2.953.29 ± 0.38 (MVP)
1.05 ± 0.21 (AP)1.11 ± 0.09 (AP)− 0.372.61 ± 0.38 (AP)2.19 ± 0.27 (AP)1.272.41 ± 0.32 (AP)
Kinematic
 Ankle angle at FS (°)95.0 ± 3.00* (MVP)105 ± 2.00 (MVP)− 3.80101 ± 6.00 (SVP˟)113 ± 5.00 (MVP˟)− 2.17110 ± 9.00 (MVP)
96.00 ± 6.00* (AP)105 ± 2.00 (AP)− 2.3099.0 ± 8.00 (AP)106 ± 6.00 (AP)− 0.99100 ± 8.00 (AP)
 Ankle angle at TO (°)100 ± 5.00* (MVP)115 ± 9.00 (MVP)− 2.10118 ± 5.00 (MVP˟)117 ± 7.00 (SVP˟)0.16114 ± 6.00(MVP)
105 ± 6.00 (AP)118 ± 5.00 (AP)− 2.30108 ± 4.00 (AP)114 ± 3.00 (AP)− 1.70111 ± 5.00 (AP)
 Ankle ROM (°)4.00 ± 4.00 (MVP)10.0 ± 10.0 (MVP)− 0.70− 10.0 ± 4.00 (SVP)1.00 ± 5.00 (MVP)− 2.43− 4.00 ± 7.00 (MVP)
 Knee angle at FS (°)154 ± 7.00* (MVP)178 ± 6.00 (MVP)− 3.70156 ± 6.00 (MVP˟)166 ± 16.0 (SVP˟)− 0.83155 ± 6.00 (MVP)
150 ± 9.00* (AP)174 ± 10.0 (AP)− 2.50147 ± 7.00 (AP)151 ± 5.00 (AP)− 0.66150 ± 6.00 (AP)
 Thigh angle at FS (°)34.0 ± 6.00* (MVP)23.0 ± 7.00 (MVP)1.8038.0 ± 3.00 (MVP˟)31.0 ± 4.00 (SVP˟)1.9834.0 ± 3.00 (MVP)
 Thigh ROM (°)− 19.0 ± 5.00 (MVP)− 22.0 ± 10.0 (MVP)0.40− 44.0 ± 4.00 (MVP˟)− 35.0 ± 6.00 (SVP˟)− 1.77− 38.0 ± 4.00 (MVP)
 Trunk angle at FS (°)78.0 ± 3.00* (MVP)90.0 ± 2.00 (MVP)− 4.10
69.0 ± 5.00* (AP)85.0 ± 2.00 (AP)− 4.30
 Trunk angle at TO (°)76.0 ± 4.00* (MVP)87.0 ± 2.00 (MVP)− 3.20
70.0 ± 5.00* (AP)84.0 ± 4.00 (AP)− 3.40
Kinetic
 Mean anterior GRF (N)127 ± 31.0* (MVP)83.0 ± 25.0 (MVP)1.60
 Peak anterior GRF (N)447 ± 98.0* (MVP)259 ± 53.0 (MVP)2.40
 Mean medial GRF (N)120 ± 41.0* (MVP)70.0 ± 36.0 (MVP)1.30
 Peak medial GRF (N)241 ± 73.0* (MVP)120 ± 62.0 (MVP)1.80
 Mean posterior GRF (N)159 ± 45.0* (MVP)94.0 ± 34.0 (MVP)1.60
 Peak posterior GRF (N)389 ± 143* (MVP)211 ± 77.0 (MVP)1.50
 Mean vertical GRF (N)2540 ± 376* (MVP)1030 ± 247 (MVP)4.70
 Peak vertical GRF (N)3630 ± 608* (MVP)1510 ± 387 (MVP)4.10
 Peak lateral GRF (N)210 ± 73.0* (MVP)119 ± 45.0 (MVP)1.50
  1. All data are reported as means ± standard deviation, unless specified otherwise. Effect sizes reported for between exercise [7] and performance standard [31]. A positive effect size indicates that the left-hand column (farmer’s walk or higher performer) had a greater value than the respective right-hand column (unloaded walk or lower performer). *Significant difference to unloaded walking; significant difference to low performing athletes, significant difference to acceleration phase, ˟comparison between phase based on distance, AP acceleration phase, ave average, GRF ground reaction force, MVP maximum velocity phase, SVP sub-maximal velocity phase