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Table 2 Summary of individual correlates and determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness

From: Correlates and Determinants of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adults: a Systematic Review

  Related to CRF Unrelated to CRF Summary of associations
Reference numbers Association (+/−) Reference numbers # #+ #− #0 Association (+/−)
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age 23, (12m36, 59m36) + (12f15,59f17), 60f, 68m 43 2 38 3 − −
3m, 5m, 13f, (14, 67), 16f, 16m, 17m, 18, 22, 24, 27f, 27m, 28f, 29f, 29m, 30m, 32m, 33, 35m, 37f, 37m, 39f, 40, 45m, 47m, 53f, 54f, 54m, 56m16, 60m18, 61m, 65f, 65m, 68f, 69f, 69m, 72f, 72m
 Sex (women vs. men) (14, 67), 22, 24, 33, 40, 18   6   6  
 Ethnicity 19f, 12f, 12m37, 14f   14m 5     n/a
 Marital status (married vs. single) 45m +   1 1    n/a
Socioeconomic status
 Education 6f, (12m5, 59m7), (12f5, 59f), 23m, 45m, 586 + 7f, 7m, (14m, 67), (14f, 67) 10 6   4 +
 Parental education 15 38   1   1   n/a
 Maternal education 15 39 +   1 1    n/a
 Paternal education 15 40   1   1   n/a
 Composite SES index 20f, 58 + 20m 3 2   1 +
 Occupation 58, 45m14 +   2 2    n/a
 Employment 45m +   1     n/a
 Working mother    6m 1    1 n/a
 Income 45m +   1 1    n/a
 Financial strain 5813 +   1 1    n/a
Anthropometric measures
 Body mass index 10m, 13f, 16f, 18, 23m, 37m, 37f, 59m, 59f, 64m1, 65m, 65f, 66m, 66f, 77m, 77f, 78m, 78f 7f, 7m, 16m 24 3 18 3
32m, 40, 56m +
 Overweight 63f 67 2   1 1 n/a
 Obese 63f, 67   2   2   n/a
 Relative weight 11m, 11f   2   2   n/a
 Body shape    3m 1    1 n/a
 Waist circumference 13f, (14m, 77m), 16m, 16f, 23m, 30m, 30f, 78m, 78f (77f, 14f)8 10   9 1 − −
 Waist-to-hip circumference ratio 47m   1   1   n/a
 Weight 6m   4 3 1   +
24, 35m, 47m +
 Body fat (%) 10m, 33m, 33f, 39f, 61m, 68m, 68f2   7   7   +
 Total fat mass 72f, 72m   2   2   n/a
 Lean mass (%) 9, 22 +   2 2    n/a
 Total lean mass 72m, 72f + 9 3 2   1 +
 Skeletal muscle mass 54m, 54f +   2 2    n/a
 Sum subscapular 12m, 12f   2   2   n/a
 Appendicular lean mass/height squared    9 1    1 n/a
 Appendicular lean mass (%) 9 +   1 1    n/a
 Height 35m + 10m 2 1   1 n/a
 Birth weight 64m +   1 1    n/a
Vital parameters
 Heart rate, resting 10m, 11m, 11f, 47m, 56m, 67   6   6  
 Heart rate, maximal exercise 47m +   1 1    n/a
 Heart rate, after CRF test 66m, 66f4   2   2   n/a
 Mean blood pressure 56m, 68   2   2   n/a
 Systolic blood pressure 12m, 12f, 77m 77f 4   3 1
 Diastolic blood pressure 77m, 77f   2   2   n/a
 Forced expiratory volume in 1 s 47m, 59m3, 59f3 +   3 3    +
 Vital capacity 11m, 11f, 51 +   3 3    +
 Aortic augmentation index 10m   1   1   n/a
Comorbidities and medications
 Coronary heart disease 47m   1   1   n/a
 Asthma 47m   1   1   n/a
 Hypertension    67 1    1 n/a
 Diabetes    67 1    1 n/a
 Beta-blocker use 30f, 30m   2   2   n/a
 Shortness of breath upon exertion    32m 1    1 n/a
Biomarkers
 Bicarbonate 1 +   1 1    n/a
 Anion gap 1   1   1   n/a
 Vitamin D 4 +   1 1    n/a
 (High-sensitivity) C-reactive protein 2, 41, 44f, 44m 67 5   4 1
 Thyroid-stimulating hormone 369    1     n/a
 Hemoglobin 47m +   1 1    n/a
 Fasting serum insulin 47m 24 2   1 1 n/a
 2-h glucose tolerance test    24 1    1 n/a
 Glucose, mg/dL    77m, 77f 2    2 n/a
 HbA1c, %    77m, 77f 2    2 n/a
 Ferritin 50m10   1   1   n/a
 High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol 56m11, 77m, 77f +   3 3    +
 Non-HDL cholesterol 56m12 +   1 1    n/a
 Cholesterol 77f (67, 77m) 2   1 1 n/a
 Triglycerides 77m42   77f 2    1 n/a
 Creatinine excretion 21f, 21m +   2 2    n/a
 White blood cell count    67 1    1 n/a
 Homocysteine 43f 43m 2   1 1 n/a
 Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I    25f, 25m 2    2 n/a
 IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3)    25f, 25m 2    2 n/a
 IGF-I and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio    25f, 25m 2    2 n/a
 Nonesterified fatty acid    24 1    1 n/a
 Red cell distribution width 9   1   1   n/a
 Flow-mediated dilation    26 1    1 n/a
 Nitroglycerin-mediated dilation 2633 +   1 1    n/a
Activity parameters
 Subjective measurements
 Overall PA
  PA index, various 11f, 11m, (12f, 59f), (12m, 59m), 33f, 33m, 37f, 37m, 38, 48m, 49m, 56m, 60f29, 60m29 + 10m, 49f, 65f, 65m, 76m 19 14   5 +
  PA level, high vs. low 73f 32 + 49f, 49m 3 1   2  
  Failure to meet PA recommendation    63f 1    1 n/a
  PA times/week 23m, 47m, 66f, 66m +   4 4    +
  PA duration (hours/week) 45m +   1 1    n/a
  PA (in METS or MET minutes/week) (14f, 6730), (14m, 6730), 38, (45m, 47m), 68m31, 70 + 68f 7 6   1 +
  Energy expenditure (kcal/week) 45m +   1 1    n/a
  Moderate-to-vigorous PA 30f, 30m +   2 2    n/a
  Moderate PA 39f + 75 2 1   1 n/a
  Vigorous PA 75 +   1 1    n/a
  Proportion of vigorous PA/all PA 14f, 14m +   2 2    n/a
 LTPA
  Regular exercise    32m 1    1 n/a
  Activity > 2 h/week 35m +   1 1    n/a
  Training time (hours/week) 16f, 16m   2   2   n/a
  Leisure sports activities (yes vs. no) 7f, 74m +   2 2    n/a
  LTPA, quartiles 22 +   1 1    n/a
  Intensity of LTPA (in METS) 61m +   1 1    n/a
  LTPA, duration/day    61m 1    1 n/a
  Energy expenditure during active leisure time 48 +   1 1    n/a
  Caloric expenditure in sports activity 16f, 16m +   2 2    n/a
  Membership in a sports club    7m 1    1 n/a
  Past participation (years of vigorous or moderate sporting activities)    49f, 49m 2    2 n/a
 Occupational PA
  Occupational PA 74m + 45m 2 1   1 n/a
 Sedentary PA
  Sedentary PA 39f   1   1   n/a
 Other PA measures
  Satisfied with sports performance (yes)    7f, 7m 2    2 n/a
  Positive attitude toward swimming    6m 1    1 n/a
  Positive attitude toward soccer and handball    7f, 7m 2    2 n/a
  Positive attitude toward aerobic fitness    7f, 7m 2    2 n/a
 Objective measurements
  Accelerometer
  PA volume    52f 1    1 n/a
  PA intensity 52f +   1 1    n/a
  Step count 13f +   1 1    n/a
  Moderate-to-vigorous PA (continuous) 13f, 18, 42f, 42m +   4 4    +
  Vigorous PA (continuous) 13f +   1 1    n/a
  Vigorous PA (none vs. any) 18    1 1    n/a
  Sedentary PA 42f, 42m   2   2   n/a
 Physical fitness
  Knee extension torque    9 1    1 n/a
  Handgrip strength    9 1    1 n/a
  Bench press 7m + 7f 2 1   1 n/a
  Sargent jump 6f +   1 1    n/a
 Other
  Physical activity energy expenditure 24 +   1     n/a
Other health behaviors
 Smoking vs. non-smoking 8f, 8m, 11f, 11m, 22, 23m, 30m, 32m, (37f, 63f), 37m, 55m, 60m22, 60f22 14m, 16f, 16m, 24, 30f, 35m, (12f19, 59f21), ( 12m19, 59m21) 22 1 13 8
(14f, 67)41 +
 Number of cigarettes 56m20, 68m23 68f 3   2 1
 Alcohol 12f , 5724 + 12m27 3 2   1 +
 Carbohydrates (g/day) 47m +   1 1    n/a
 Diet quality score 57f, 57m35 +   2 2    n/a
 Meat dietary pattern 57f26, 57m26   2   2   n/a
 Fruit–vegetable dietary pattern 57m28 + 57f 2 1   1 n/a
 Childhood television viewing (31, 46)   1   1   n/a
 Adult television viewing (31, 46)   1   1   n/a
 Sleep problems 6225   1   1   n/a
Other
 Commuting distance 3434   1   1   n/a
 Gestational age (mother) 64m +   1 1    n/a
 Attachment loss (dental)    67 1    1 n/a
 Probing depth (dental)    67 1    1 n/a
 Preterm birth    71 1 1    n/a
  1. +: positive association; −: negative association; 0: null association; n/a: summary measure not applicable because the number of independent samples investigating the relationship is less than three. The numbers in the summary table refer to the reference number for each study. f: women only; m: men only. Samples from studies with longitudinal designs are marked in italic. Separate studies drawing on the same study population and reporting redundant exposures are presented in parentheses and were counted as one unit of analysis. CRF cardiorespiratory fitness, MET metabolic equivalent, LTPA leisure-time physical activity, PA physical activity, PWC physical working capacity
  2. 1Inverse U-shaped association
  3. 2Negatively associated with annual change in VO2max
  4. 3Significant association with test duration but not with work load 130
  5. 4Significant association with time to heart rate 130 but not with test duration
  6. 5Significant association with test duration but not with time to HR130
  7. 6Inverse U-shaped association (medium > high > low)
  8. 7Significant association with test duration but not with WL130
  9. 8Women with low CRF showed significantly higher waist circumference, compared with women with high CRF, in [77] (adjusted for “race” and age). Using the same data, in [14], women with high waist circumference did not show significantly different levels of CRF, compared with women with normal WC, after adjustment for multiple variables
  10. 9Lower VO2peak in the second quintile than in the third quintile of thyroid-stimulating hormone
  11. 10Lower odds of high fitness (VO2max) with elevated serum ferritin (> 300 ng/ml) vs. non-elevated serum ferritin (< 300 ng/ml)
  12. 11Significant association with PWC150/kg but not with PWC150, workload/heart rate, test duration, or workload
  13. 12Significant association with workload and workload/heart rate but not with PWC150, PWC150/kg, or test duration
  14. 13Higher METS with medium vs. low financial strain
  15. 14Higher mean VO2max among white-collar workers than among blue-collar workers and farmers
  16. 15Significant positive association with time to heart rate 130; significant negative association with test duration
  17. 16Significant association with workload, workload/heart rate, PWC150, and test duration but not with PWC150/kg
  18. 17Significant negative association with test duration only for black women; significant positive association with WL130 only for white women
  19. 18Significant association with exercise test duration only for white men (not for black men)
  20. 19Significant negative association with test duration; significant positive association with time to heart rate 130
  21. 20Significant negative association with workload, test duration, and workload/heart rate; no significant association with PWC150; significant positive association with PWC150/kg
  22. 21Significant negative association with test duration; significant positive association with PWC130
  23. 22Significant negative association with test duration for black men and black women; significant negative association with WL130 for white men and black women
  24. 23Significant negative association with annual change in VO2max
  25. 24Significant positive association with test duration for beer and wine but not for liquor
  26. 25Significant positive association of VO2max with repeated awakenings and daytime sleepiness but not with sleep initiation problems or early awakening
  27. 26Significant negative association of test duration with meat dietary pattern for white men and women
  28. 27Significant negative association with test duration; significant positive association with time to heart rate 130
  29. 28Significant positive association of test duration with fruit–vegetable dietary pattern for white men
  30. 29Significant positive association with test duration for all subgroups; significant positive association with PWC130 only for white men and white women
  31. 30Significant positive association for high vs. none activity in METmin/week
  32. 31Significant positive association with VO2max at first checkup
  33. 32Persistently active vs. persistently inactive; no significant association in other categories vs. persistently inactive
  34. 33Significant positive association only among non- or ex-smokers (not in current smokers)
  35. 34Significant negative association only for continuous measure of commuting distance and for 11–15 miles vs. 0–5 miles
  36. 35Significant positive association of test duration with a priori diet quality score for white men
  37. 36Significant positive association with time to heart rate 130; no significant association with test duration
  38. 37Significant positive association with test duration; no significant association with time to heart rate 130
  39. 38Significant higher risk of fitness decrease and lower risk of fitness persistence for medium vs. low parental education
  40. 39Significant higher risk of fitness persisting for high vs. low maternal education
  41. 40Significant lower risk of fitness persisting for medium vs. low parental education
  42. 41CRF was positively associated with smoking for both sexes in [67]. In [14], there was a positive association with smoking for women but not for men
  43. 42Significantly higher values for medium vs. high fitness but not for low vs. high fitness