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Table 1 Included studies categorized by study characteristics

From: Correlates and Determinants of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adults: a Systematic Review

  Number of studies % Reference numbers
Risk of bias
Low 30 38% [1, 2, 4, 12, 14,15,16, 18, 20, 23,24,25,26, 31, 34, 36, 40, 42,43,44, 49, 50, 57, 59, 60, 62, 67, 75,76,77]
Medium 41 53% [5,6,7,8,9, 13, 17, 21, 22, 28,29,30, 32, 33, 35, 37,38,39, 45,46,47,48, 51, 55, 56, 58, 61, 63,64,65,66, 68,69,70,71,72,73,74, 78]
High 7 9% [3, 19, 27, 41, 52,53,54]
Sample size
< 100 5 6% [5, 17, 41, 53, 71]
100–299 19 24% [4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, 21, 27, 29, 32, 48, 51, 52, 66, 68, 70, 73, 75, 76]
300–499 9 12% [3, 8, 16, 33, 38, 39, 49, 72, 78]
500–1999 25 32% [15, 18, 19, 22,23,24,25,26, 30, 31, 35, 40, 43, 44, 46, 47, 50, 54, 55, 60, 61, 63, 65, 69, 74]
2000–4999 14 18% [1, 12, 14, 20, 34, 36, 42, 45, 56, 57, 59, 62, 67, 77]
> 5000 6 8% [2, 11, 28, 37, 58, 64]
Region
North America 31 40% [1, 2, 4, 5, 10,11,12, 14, 17, 19, 21, 22, 28, 33, 34, 37, 42,43,44, 50,51,52,53, 57, 59, 60, 63, 65, 67, 69, 77]
Europe 29 37% [6, 7, 18, 20, 23,24,25,26,27, 29, 30, 36, 38, 40, 45, 47,48,49, 55, 56, 62, 64, 66, 70, 71, 75, 76]
Asia 14 18% [13, 16, 32, 35, 39, 41, 54, 58, 61, 68, 72,73,74, 78]
Oceania (including Australia) 4 5% [3, 15, 31, 46]
World Bank income classification
High-income countries 74 95% [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29, 33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60, 62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71, 74,75,76,77,78]
Upper-middle-income countries 2 3% [72, 73]
Lower-middle-income countries 2 3% [32, 61]
Low-income countries 0 0%
Country
Canada 1 1% [51]
United States 30 38% [1, 2, 4, 5, 10,11,12, 14, 17, 19, 21, 22, 28, 33, 34, 37, 42,43,44, 50, 52, 53, 57, 59, 60, 63, 65, 67, 69, 77]
Finland 5 6% [23, 30, 45, 47, 66]
Sweden 3 4% [6, 7, 64]
Norway 3 4% [18, 55, 62]
Netherlands 4 5% [8, 38, 70, 71]
Germany 6 8% [20, 25, 26, 29, 36, 40]
United Kingdom 2 3% [24, 49]
Belgium 2 3% [48, 76]
Lithuania 1 1% [27]
Italy 1 1% [56]
Spain 1 1% [75]
Israel 3 4% [16, 35, 58]
Jordan 1 1% [32]
India 1 1% [61]
China 2 3% [72, 73]
Korea 2 3% [39, 78]
Japan 5 6% [13, 41, 54, 68, 74]
Australia 2 3% [15]
New Zealand 2 3% [31, 46]
Multiple countries 1 1% [9]
Study design
Cross-sectional 59 76% [1,2,3, 9,10,11,12,13,14, 16, 18,19,20,21, 23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30, 32,33,34,35,36, 39,40,41,42,43,44,45, 47,48,49,50,51,52, 54, 56,57,58,59, 61, 62, 65,66,67,68,69, 72, 74, 75, 77, 78]
Longitudinal 18 23% [6, 15, 17, 22, 31, 37, 38, 46, 53, 55, 60, 63, 64, 70, 73, 76]
Case–control 1 1% [71]
Sex
Women only 8 10% [13, 19, 28, 39, 52, 53, 63, 73]
Men only 17 22% [3, 5, 10, 17, 23, 32, 35, 45, 47, 48, 50, 55, 56, 61, 64, 74, 76]
Women and men 48 62% [2, 4, 6,7,8, 11, 12, 14,15,16, 18, 20,21,22, 24,25,26,27, 29, 30, 33, 34, 36,37,38, 40,41,42,43,44, 49, 51, 54, 57,58,59,60, 65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72, 75, 78, 79]
NR 5 6% [1, 9, 31, 46, 62]
Maximal or submaximal exercise testing
Maximal 48 62% [8, 11,12,13, 16,17,18, 21,22,23, 25,26,27,28,29,30, 33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40, 45, 47, 48, 51,52,53, 55,56,57, 59,60,61, 63,64,65,66, 69,70,71, 73,74,75, 77]
Submaximal 27 35% [1, 5,6,7, 9, 14, 15, 19, 20, 24, 31, 41,42,43,44, 46, 49, 50, 54, 58, 62, 67, 68, 72, 76]
NR 3 4% [10, 32, 78]
Exercise test machine
Cycle 34 44% [3, 5,6,7, 9, 13, 15, 20, 23,24,25,26,27, 30,31,32, 36, 40, 45,46,47,48, 51, 55, 56, 64, 66, 68, 71,72,73,74,75,76]
Treadmill 44 56% [1, 2, 4, 8, 10,11,12, 14, 16,17,18,19, 21, 22, 28, 29, 33,34,35, 37,38,39, 41,42,43,44, 49, 50, 52,53,54, 57,58,59,60,61,62,63, 65, 67, 69, 70, 77, 78]
CRF measure
 VO2max, direct (among others) 39 50% [4, 5, 8, 10, 13, 17, 18, 21,22,23,24,25,26,27, 29, 30, 33, 35, 38,39,40, 45, 47,48,49, 51,52,53,54, 62, 65, 66, 69,70,71,72,73, 75, 76]
VO2max indirect (among others) 19 24% [1, 6, 7, 9, 14, 16, 31, 41,42,43,44, 46, 50, 67, 68, 74, 77]
Only other measures 19 24% [11, 12, 15, 19, 20, 28, 32, 34, 36, 37, 55,56,57,58,59,60,61, 63, 64]
NR 1 1% [78]
  1. CRF cardiorespiratory fitness, NR not reported, VO2max maximal oxygen consumption