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Table 1 Summary matrix of original published studies investigating inspiratory muscle training in individuals with cystic fibrosis

From: Inspiration for the Future: The Role of Inspiratory Muscle Training in Cystic Fibrosis

Study Patient demographics* Protocol Comparison Primary outcomes
Asher, 1982 Age: 16.0 ± 4.6
%BMI: 82.6 ± 9.9
%FEV1: 35.0 ± 12.3
MIP: 74 ± 18
Mode: Flow-based
Intensity: Rmax
Frequency: BID
Duration: 15 min/day; 4 weeks
Subjects served as their own controls with a 4-week control period followed by a 4-week intervention period. Increase in IMS (9.5%; p < 0.025) and IME; no effect on exercise performance.
Sawyer, 1993 Age: 11.5 ± 2.5
BMI**: 18.4
NIHS: 87.7
MIP: 107 ± 29
Mode: Threshold
Intensity: 50–60% MIP
Frequency: 7 days/week
Duration: 30 min/day; 10 weeks
Compared to a sham group who performed trained at ≤ 10% MIP. Increase in MIP (13%; p < 0.01), VC (17%), TLC (13%; p < 0.01), and maximal exercise capacity (9.8%; p < 0.03) with observed increase in sputum production.
De Jong, 2001 Age: 17 ± 5.2
BMI**: 17.9
%FEV1: 70 ± 25
%MIP: 105 ± 23
Mode: Threshold
Intensity: 40% MIP
Frequency: 5 days/week
Duration: 20 min; 6 weeks
Compared to a sham group who performed trained at 10% MIP. Increase in IME (35%; p = 0.003) with no significant effect on exercise, dyspnea, or fatigue.
Enright, 2004 Age: 24.8 ± 5.5
BMI**: 22.3
%FEV1: 64.2 ± 29.7
MIP: 134 ± 26
Mode: Computer interface
Intensity: 80% SMIP
Frequency: 3 days/week
Duration: 6 sets, 6 reps; 8 weeks
Compared to a sham group at 20% SMIP and a control group. Increased SMIP and MIP with 80% and 20% training groups with no between group differences. Increased diaphragmatic thickness (20%), VC (24%), TLC (12%), and PWC (51%); decreased anxiety and depression in the 80% group only.
Santana-Sosa, 2014 Age: 11 ± 1
BMI: 16.6 ± 0.7
FEV1: 1.65 ± 0.19
MIP: 68.3 ± 6.3
Mode: Threshold combined with exercise program.
Intensity: 40–50% MIP
Frequency: BID
Duration: ~ 5 min of 30 inspirations; 8 weeks
Compared to a sham group who was trained at 10% MIP. Increased MIP (58%), VO2peak (22%), and muscular strength in the intervention group.
Bieli, 2017 Sequence IC***
Age: 15.4 (12.0:16.6)
BMI**: 17.8
zFEV1: − 0.9 (− 2.8:0.5)
MIP: Not reported
Sequence CI***
Age: 13.2 (10.9:17.8)
BMI**: 19.7
zFEV1: − 2.1 (− 3.4 : - 0.5)
MIP: Not reported
Mode: Eucapnic hyperventilation
Intensity: Not reported
Frequency: BID, 5 days/week
Duration: 10 min; 8 weeks
Randomized crossover comparison. Increased RME (105%) but not exercise endurance, lung function, or quality of life.
  1. BID two times per day, BMI body mass index, %BMI body mass index percentile, %FEV1 percent of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s expressed as liters per second, zFEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s expressed a z-score, %RV percent of predicted residual volume, Rmax greatest resistance sustainable for 10 min, IMS inspiratory muscle strength, IME inspiratory muscle endurance, %MIP percent of predicted maximal inspiratory pressure, MIP maximal inspiratory pressure in cmH2O, NIHS National Institutes of Health Score for disease severity, NR not reported, QD daily, PWC physical work capacity, SMIP sustained maximal inspiratory pressure, TLC total lung capacity, VC vital capacity, VO2 peak peak rate of oxygen consumption
  2. *Patient demographics given for baseline characteristics of the intervention group
  3. **Calculated from height and weight provided in the article
  4. ***Values presented as median (interquartile range); CI control—intervention sequence, IC intervention—control sequence