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Table 2 Description of included studies/data sets in the meta-analysis

From: The Effect of Resistance Training Interventions on ‘The Self’ in Youth: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Study Country Participant details Intervention details
N Age (years ± sd) Pubertal stage (Tanner) Weight status % males Sex of training group Location Weeks × per week (min per session) Sets/reps/intensity Exercises Assessment tool Outcomes included Quality score
Goldfield et al. [33] Canada EG 78, CG 76 EG 15.9 ± 1.5, CG 15.6 ± 1.3 4–5 Obese 29% Mixed Community 22 weeks × 4 (45 min) 2–3 sets, 6–15 reps, moderate to max Session 1: bench press, chest fly, lateral raise, shoulder shrugs, bicep curl, triceps press, abdominal crunches. Session 2: incline bench press, incline chest fly, shoulder press, front raise, preacher curl, assisted triceps dips, sit-ups. Session 3: squat, seated leg curl, front lateral pull down, seated row, lunge, straight leg raise, abdominal crunches. Session 4: leg press, leg extension, dumbbell pullover, seated row, lying leg curl Physical Self-Perception Profile for Children [34]
The Harter Global Self-Esteem sub-scale [35]
Body attractiveness, global self-esteem, physical condition, physical self-worth, physical strength, sport competence 1
Lubans et al. (a) [20] Australia EG 22, CG 14 EG 15.3 ± 0.8, CG 14.8 ± 0.4 / Mixed 100% Mixed School—free time 8 weeks × 2 (50 min) 2 sets, 8–12 reps, max for reps Free weights—squat, lunge, calf raise, bent over row, chest press, front raise, biceps curl, triceps extension, crunch and Russian twist Children’s Physical Self-perception Profile [34], an adapted resistance training efficacy scale Physical self-worth, sport competence, physical condition, body attractiveness, physical strength, RT self-efficacy. 2
Lubans et al. (b) [20] Australia EG 15, CG 16 EG 14.9 ± 0.6, CG 14.6 ± 0.6 / Mixed 0% Mixed School—free time 8 weeks × 2 (50 min) 2 sets, 8–12 reps, max for reps Free-weights—squat, lunge, calf raise, bent over row, chest press, front raise, biceps curl, triceps extension, crunch and Russian twist Children’s Physical Self-perception Profile [34], an adapted resistance training efficacy scale Physical self-worth, sport competence, physical condition, body attractiveness, physical strength, RT self-efficacy 2
Lubans et al. (c) [20] Australia EG 20, CG 14 EG 15 ± 0.6, CG 14.8 ± 0.4 / Mixed 100% Mixed School—free time 8 weeks × 2 (50 min) 2 sets, 8–12 reps, max for reps Elastic tubing—squat, lunge, calf raise, bent over row, chest press, front raise, biceps curl, triceps extension, crunch and Russian twist Children’s Physical Self-perception Profile [34], an adapted resistance training efficacy scale Physical self-worth, sport competence, physical condition, body attractiveness, physical strength, RT efficacy 2
Lubans et al. (d) [20] Australia EG 21, CG 16 EG 15 ± 0.7, CG 14.6 ± 0.6 / Mixed 0% Mixed School—free time 8 weeks × 2 (50 min) 2 sets, 8–12 reps, max for reps Elastic tubing—squat, lunge, calf raise, bent over row, chest press, front raise, biceps curl, triceps extension, crunch and Russian twist Children’s Physical Self-perception Profile [34], an adapted resistance training efficacy scale Physical self-worth, sport competence, physical condition, body attractiveness, physical strength, RT self-efficacy 2
Schranz et al. [36] Australia EG 30, CG 26 EG 14.9 ± 1.4, CG 15.1 ± 1.6 ≥ 2 Overweight/obese 100% Males Community 24 weeks × 3 (75 min) 1–3sets, 8–12 reps, to concentric failure Bench press, leg press, lat pulldown, leg curl (lying or seated), shoulder press (seated), seated row, biceps curl, triceps press-down, calf raise (seated) and abdominal crunch Exercise Self-efficacy [37] Modified Resistance Training Self-efficacy and Outcome Expectancy Questionnaire [20], Physical Self Worth Scale [38], Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents [39] Physical self-worth, global self-esteem, exercise self-efficacy, resistance training beliefs, resistance training confidence 1
Velez et al. [40] USA EG 13, CG 15 EG 16 ± 0.2, CG / / Mixed 53% Mixed School—free time 12 weeks × 3(40 min) 2–3 sets, 10–15 reps, 80% of 10 RM, RPE 10 Bench press, seated row, shoulder press, lat pulldowns, flies, bicep curls, and triceps pushdowns or lower body exercises including squats, Romanian dead lift, leg extensions, leg curls, lunges and calf raises The CY-PSPP [34] Body attractiveness, global self-esteem, physical condition, physical self-worth, physical strength, sport competence 2
  1. Lubans et al. ‘a’ indicates male free-weights group, ‘b’ indicates female free-weights group, ‘c’ indicates male elastic tubing group, and ‘d’ indicates female elastic tubing group. “/” indicates no data available
  2. EG experimental group, CG control group, RT resistance training, sd standard deviation, rep repetition, max maximum, RM repetition maximum, RPE rate of perceived exertion, lat latissimus dorsi, CY-PSPP Children and Youth - Physical Self-Perception Profile