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Table 2 Characteristics of the interventions

From: The Role of Aerobic Training Variables Progression on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: a Systematic Review with Meta-analysis

Study Modality (n) Intervention period Session duration Weekly frequency Weekly duration Intensity Volume
Progressive aerobic training
Alvarez et al. 2016 [12] Interval: stimulus—running, recovery—walking (n = 13)
Control (n = 10)
16 weeks Beginning: 22 min
Final: 37.5 min
3 Beginning: 66 min
Final: 112.6 min
Stimulus: 90–100% HRres
Recovery: ≤  70% HRres
Belli et al. 2011 [28] Walking (n = 9)
Control (n = 10)
12 weeks Beginning: 20 min
Final: 60 min
3 Beginning: 60 min
Final: 180 min
HRVT
Kadoglou et al. 2007 [35] Walking or running on the treadmill/cycle ergometer (n = 29)
Control (n = 27)
26 weeks Beginning: 30 min
Final: 45 min
4 Beginning: 120 min
Final: 180 min
Beginning: 50%VO2peak
Gradual increase throughout the 26 weeks
Final: 75%VO2peak
Kadoglou et al. 2012 [44] Walking or running on the treadmill/cycle ergometer (n = 21)
Control (n = 7)
26 weeks Gradual increases until 4th week, reaching 45 min 4 180 min Beginning: 60% HRmax
Final: 75% HRmax
Lambers et al. 2008 [29] Walking or running/cycle ergometer (n = 18)
Control (n = 6)
12 weeks 50 min 3 150 min Beginning: 60%HRres
Middle: 75%HRre
Final: 85%HRre
Mitranun et al. 2014 [23] Interval training on the treadmill (it does not report if it is walking or running in the stimulus and recovery) (n = 14)
Control (n = 8)
12 weeks Beginning: 20 min
Middle: 20 min
Final: 30 min
3 Beginning: 60 min
Middle: 60 min
Final: 90 min
Beginning: 50% VO2peak
Middle: 80% VO2peak
Final: 85% VO2peak
Beginning: 33.6 L O2
Middle: 36.2 L O2
Final: 53.7 L O2
Continuous on the treadmill (does not report if it is walking or running) (n = 14)
Control (n = 8)
Beginning: 20 min
Middle: 20 min
Final: 30 min
3 Beginning: 60 min
Middle: 60 min
Final: 90 min
Beginning: 50% VO2peak
Middle: 60% VO2peak
Final: 65% VO2peak
Beginning: 33.6 L O2
Middle: 36.2 L O2Final: 53.7 L O2
Negri et al. 2010 [30] Walking (n = 21)
Control (n = 20)
16 weeks 45 min 3 135 min Beginning: low(NS)
Final: moderate (NS)
Oliveira et al. 2012 [31] Cycle ergometer (n = 11)
Control (n = 4)
12 weeks Beginning: 20 min
Final: 50 min
3 From 60 to 150 min HRLT
Sentinelli et al. 2014 [32] Nordic walking (n = 10)
Control (n = 10)
12 weeks Beginning: 60 min
Final: 90 min
3 Beginning: 180 min
Final: 270 min
Beginning: low to moderate (NS)
Final: moderate to high (NS)
Beginning: 4–5 km with slope of 7% of inclination
Final: 7 km with slope of 14% of inclination
Tomar et al. 2013 [33] Walking or running on the treadmill/cycle ergometer (n = 12)
Control (n = 12)
12 weeks NS 3 Increased every 4 weeks (NS) Beginning: 40–50% HRmax;
Gradual increase (NS)
Vancea et al. 2009 [45] Walking (n = 14)
Control (n = 10)
20 weeks 30 min 3 90 min Beginning: 60% HRmax
Final: 70% HRmax
Walking (n = 9)
Control (n = 7)
30 min 5 150 min Beginning: 60% HRmax
Final: 70% HRmax
Yavari et al. 2012 [34] Treadmill/elliptical/cycle ergometer (n = 20)
Control (n = 7)
52 weeks Beginning: 20 min
Final: 60 min
3 Beginning: 60 min
Final: 180 min
Beginning: 60% HRmax
Final: 75% HRmax
Non-progressive aerobic training
Blonk et al. 1994 [36] Cycle ergometer (n = 26)
Control (n = 27)
26 weeks 30 min 2 60 min 60–80%HRmax
Church et al. 2010 [20] Walking (n = 52)
Control (n = 16)
39 weeks 50 min 3 150 min 50–80% VO2max 12 kcal/kg/week
Emereziani et al. 2015 [37] Walking/cycle ergometer (n = 15)
Control (n = 15)
12 weeks 30 min 2 60 min HRAT
Giannopolou et al. 2005 [38] Walking (n = 11)
Control (n = 6)
14 weeks 50 min 3 150 min 65–70% VO2peak Deficit of 200 kcal
Jorge et al. 2011 [22] Cycle ergometer (n = 12)
Control (n = 4)
12 weeks 60 min 3 180 min HRLT
Karstoft et al. 2013 [21] Walking (continuous) (n = 11)
Control (n = 4)
17 weeks 60 min 5 300 min 55% VO2peak
Walking (interval) (n = 11)
Control (4)
60 min 5 300 min 70% VO2peak (3 min above, 3 min below)
Kwon et al. 2001 [39] Walking (n = 13)
Control (n = 8)
12 weeks 60 min 5 300 min Moderate (NS) 4 to 6 METs
Middlebrooke et al. 2006 [40] Not reported (n = 15)
Control (n = 30)
26 weeks 30 min 3 90 min 70–80% HRmax
Nuttamon-
warakul et al. 2012 [46]
Aquatic training (n = 20)
Control (n = 20)
12 weeks 30 3 90 min 70% HRmax
Parra-Sanchez et al. 2015 [41] Walking (n = 47)
Control (n = 41)
12 weeks 40 min 2 80 min Velocity which allowed to speak without stuttering
Shenoy et al. 2009 [42] Walking (n = 10)
Control (n = 5)
16 weeks 30 min 3 90 min
Yan et al. 2014 [43] Not reported (low intensity) (n = 22)
Control (n = 6)
12 weeks 45 min 3–5 135 to 225 min 50% VO2max
Not reported (high intensity) (n = 9)
Control (n = 4)
45 min 3 135 min 75% VO2max
  1. Min minutes, n number of participants, HRres heart rate reserve, HRmax maximum heart rate, HRLT heart rate corresponding to lactate threshold, HRAT heart rate corresponding to aerobic threshold, HRVT heart rate corresponding to ventilatory threshold, VO2peak peak oxygen consumption, L O2 liters of oxygen, NS not specified. The study of Blonk et al. (1994) did not state the SD of the participants’ age