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Table 2 Summary of reported head injury and associated helmet damage (percentage of total number in brackets). Note: Most helmets were certified to two or more standards

From: Do equestrian helmets prevent concussion? A retrospective analysis of head injuries and helmet damage from real-world equestrian accidents

  Total no. Equestrian type Helmet certification
Professional Amateur Snell PAS015 EN1384 ASTM
No. of helmets 216 40 (19%) 176 (81%) 43 (20%) 169 (78%) 133 (62%) 101 (47%)
No. of injury reports 189 29 (15%) 160 (85%) 43 (23%) 147 (78%) 106 (56%) 87 (46%)
No. of head injuries 139 10 (7%) 129 (93%) 34 (24%) 102 (73%) 70 (50%) 65 (47%)
No. of head injury cases with damaged helmet 75 10 (13%) 65 (87%) 9 (12%) 64 (85%) 43 (57%) 42 (56%)
No. of head injury cases with undamaged helmet 64 0 (0%) 64 (100%) 25 (39%) 38 (59%) 27 (42%) 23 (36%)
Concussion 126 10 (8%) 116 (92%) 34 (27%) 93 (74%) 61 (48%) 56 (44%)
Skull fracture 6 0 (0%) 6 (100%) 0 (0%) 6 (100%) 6 (100%) 6 (100%)
Haematoma 1 0 (0%) 1 (100%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100%) 1 (100%)
cerebral edema 1 0 (0%) 1 (100%) 0 (0%) 1 (100%) 1 (100%) 1 (100%)
DAI 5 0 (0%) 5 (100%) 0 (0%) 5 (100%) 5 (100%) 5 (100%)