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Table 3 Professional athletes’ awareness level of injury consequences

From: Winning at all costs: a review of risk-taking behaviour and sporting injury from an occupational safety and health perspective

Study Awareness measured Participants Sex Mean age (years) Findings
Broglio et al. [34] Concussion 650 soccer players, 43 coaches, 34 medical staff Not indicated 16.8 Most soccer players did not feel that the injury was serious enough to report; 72.0% coaches understood that having a single concussion increases the risk of a second injury concussion risk
Cournoyer and Tripp [38] Concussion 334 high-school soccer players Not indicated 16.3 Possible concussion consequences correctly identified:
Brain haemorrhage, coma, and death (60.0% to 70.0%);
Early-onset dementia (64.0%);
Early-onset Alzheimer disease (47.0%);
Early-onset Parkinson disease (28.0%).
Improperly identified: increased risk of blindness with age (50.0%) and increased risk of stroke (38.0%)
Kuhl et al. [40] Concussion 94 equestrian riders M/F Not indicated 88.0% agreed or strongly agreed repeated head injuries could result in lasting impairments;
76.0% believed that concussions can increase brain injury;
27.0% believed that work or academics was likely to worsen concussion symptoms;
47.0% disagreed or strongly disagreed that concussion management should be more conservative for a child.
Ma [42] Orofacial injuries 236 basketball players (77 professionals and 159 semi-professionals) M Not indicated 59% ranked the risk of orofacial and dental injury in basketball as medium.
McCrea et al. [43] Concussion 1532 high-school soccer players Not indicated Not indicated 66.4% of the players would not report concussion because they did not think it was serious enough for medical attention.
Williams et al. [60] Concussion 26 professional soccer players M 59.6 96.0% indicated playing with a concussion may increase later life risk of “serious stuff” or “cognitive problems”, but 64.0% would continue to play when suffered a concussion.
  1. M male, F female, % percent