Skip to main content

Table 2 Professional Athletes’ Awareness of Injury Symptom Identification

From: Winning at all costs: a review of risk-taking behaviour and sporting injury from an occupational safety and health perspective

Study Awareness measured Participants Sex Mean age (years) Findings
Broglio et al. [34] Concussion 650 soccer players, 43 coaches, 34 medical staff Not indicated 16.8 10.0% athletes sustained a concussion in the past year and 62.0% of these injuries were not reported.
Medical staff reported a heavy reliance on the clinical exam (92.0%) and athlete symptom reports (92.0%) to make the concussion diagnosis and return to play decision, with little use of neurocognitive (16.7%) or balance (0.0%) testing.
Cournoyer and Tripp [38] Concussion 334 high school soccer players Not indicated 16.3 Concussion symptom identified: headache (97.0%); dizziness (93.0%); confusion (90.0%); Loss of consciousness (81.0%); nausea or vomiting (53.0%); behaviour and personality change (40.0%); trouble falling asleep (36.0%); being more emotional (30.0%); being nervous or anxious (27.0%).
Fedor and Gunstad [24] Concussion 382 college athletes and 230 college non-athletes M/F Case group: 19.6
Control group: 19.6
Student-athletes expected significantly more distractor (1.19 ± 1.05 vs. 0.84 ± 0.89), somatic (6.05 ± 1.76 vs. 5.30 ± 2.12), and cognitive (2.31 ± 0.90 vs. 2.01 ± 1.10) symptoms compared with controls.
No significant differences emerged for emotional or sleep symptoms.
Kerr et al. [39] Concussion 214 former collegiate athletes in NCAA M/F Not indicated 70.4% did not know when they had suffered a concussion.
McCrea et al. [43] Concussion 1532 high-school soccer players Not indicated Not indicated 36.1% lacked awareness of probable concussion.
Miyashita et al. [45] Concussion 454 high-school athletes M/F 15.7 The number of athletes who reported at least 1 concussion history: before study session < after study session (p = 0.00).
Williams et al, [60] Concussion 26 professional soccer players M 59.6 80.8% athletes who were knocked unconscious would be taken to the emergency room.
80.8% managers would keep players with concussions out of games; 69.3% physiotherapists making return to play decisions regarding concussions.
38.5% athletes would play with a concussion during semi-final playoff games.
57.7% athletes would play through a headache resulting from a concussion.
  1. M male, F female; % percent, < less than/ lower than, p p-value