|Study||Awareness measured||Participants||Sex||Mean age (years)||Findings|
|Broglio et al. ||Concussion||650 soccer players, 43 coaches, 34 medical staff||Not indicated||16.8||
10.0% athletes sustained a concussion in the past year and 62.0% of these injuries were not reported.|
Medical staff reported a heavy reliance on the clinical exam (92.0%) and athlete symptom reports (92.0%) to make the concussion diagnosis and return to play decision, with little use of neurocognitive (16.7%) or balance (0.0%) testing.
|Cournoyer and Tripp ||Concussion||334 high school soccer players||Not indicated||16.3||Concussion symptom identified: headache (97.0%); dizziness (93.0%); confusion (90.0%); Loss of consciousness (81.0%); nausea or vomiting (53.0%); behaviour and personality change (40.0%); trouble falling asleep (36.0%); being more emotional (30.0%); being nervous or anxious (27.0%).|
|Fedor and Gunstad ||Concussion||382 college athletes and 230 college non-athletes||M/F||
Case group: 19.6|
Control group: 19.6
Student-athletes expected significantly more distractor (1.19 ± 1.05 vs. 0.84 ± 0.89), somatic (6.05 ± 1.76 vs. 5.30 ± 2.12), and cognitive (2.31 ± 0.90 vs. 2.01 ± 1.10) symptoms compared with controls.|
No significant differences emerged for emotional or sleep symptoms.
|Kerr et al. ||Concussion||214 former collegiate athletes in NCAA||M/F||Not indicated||70.4% did not know when they had suffered a concussion.|
|McCrea et al. ||Concussion||1532 high-school soccer players||Not indicated||Not indicated||36.1% lacked awareness of probable concussion.|
|Miyashita et al. ||Concussion||454 high-school athletes||M/F||15.7||The number of athletes who reported at least 1 concussion history: before study session < after study session (p = 0.00).|
|Williams et al, ||Concussion||26 professional soccer players||M||59.6||
80.8% athletes who were knocked unconscious would be taken to the emergency room.|
80.8% managers would keep players with concussions out of games; 69.3% physiotherapists making return to play decisions regarding concussions.
38.5% athletes would play with a concussion during semi-final playoff games.
57.7% athletes would play through a headache resulting from a concussion.