|Study||Participants||Sample size||Player type||Methods||Awareness measured||Methods validity||Associations|
|Barnard ||77 student athletes and 50 student non-athletes||
127 Case group (athletes): 32 M 45F|
Control group (non-athletes): 13 M 37F
Athletes and non-athletes did not significantly differ in willingness to seek mental health treatment.|
Discrimination to mental illness: non-athletes > athletes.
Willingness to seek psychological help: F > M.
|Fedor and Gunstad ||382 college athletes and 230 college non-athletes||
612 Case group (athletes): 228 M 154F|
Control group (non-athletes): 77 M 153F
|Student-athletes||Questionnaire||Concussion||***||Concussion symptoms identification: athletes > non-athletes (p < 0.01)|
|Kroshus et al. ||146 ice hockey players||
No statistically significant changes were observed in knowledge (p = 0.38), attitudes (p = 0.78) or perceived norms (p = 0.11).|
Inclination to play while concussed: before education > after education (lecture education: p = 0.02; email education p = 0.02).
|Cluster-randomised controlled trial|
|Cusimano et al. ||267 minor league hockey players||267; 10-year olds competitive, 106; 10-year olds recreational, 60; 14-year olds competitive, 54; 14-year olds recreational, 47.||Elite||Questionnaire||Brain injuries||**||
Concussion knowledge: before video education < immediately after video education (p < 0.01).|
Concussion knowledge at 2 months: no significance between video and no-video groups (controlling for prior knowledge level, age and competitive level) (p = 0.52).
Attitudes and behaviour scores at 2 months did not differ between groups p = 0.51.
|McKay et al. ||31 female soccer teams, 29 coaches,258 players||
Baseline: 47 coaches, 385 players|
Post-season: 29 coaches, 258 players
Postseason: players > coaches considered “inadequate warm-up” as a risk factor for injury (p < 0.01).|
The belief that injuries are preventable: coaches > players answer “yes” (p = 0.00).
|Grounded theory study|
|Hachfeld et al. ||23 student-athletes||23 M||Student athletes||Focus group||Testicular cancer||***||Student athletes were more likely to perform testicular self-examination than the general student population and physical awareness is the core structural process that influenced the action.|
|Azodo et al. ||156 basketball players||
|Mixed||Questionnaire||Orofacial injuries||***||The prevalence of injury was not significantly associated with demography, category, competition and duration of participation (p = 0.26).|
|Berry et al. ||158 players at 10 institutions of the Central Collegiate Hockey Association||
68 defensive, 90 offensive.
Sex not indicated
No one specific factor affecting attitudes was identified.|
Negative attitudes towards mouthguard usage: defensive players > offensive players (p < 0.05).
|Bhambhani et al. ||99 Paralympians with spinal cord injuries||
85 M, 11 F
3 not indicated sex
|Elite||Questionnaire||Autonomic dysreflexia||***||The awareness of the signs/symptoms and consequences of boosting was not associated with their education level (p = 0.58) or injury duration (p = 0.22).|
|Blank et al. ||883 junior athletes’ parents||
|Student-athletes||Questionnaire||Medicine use||***||Knowledge: Male parents > female parents; Parental sex did not demonstrate a significant influence on attitudes towards doping (p < 0.01).|
|Bloodgood et al. ||252 youth athletes and 300 parents||
Parents: 90 M 210F|
Youth: 207 M 45F
Agreed concussions are “a critical issue”: 13–15 years > 16–18 years (p < 0.05).|
Concussions are “a critical issue”: mothers> fathers (p < 0.05).
Disagree “dumb for caring about concussions”: girls> boys (p < 0.05).
|Broglio et al. ||727 soccer professionals||
34 medical staff
Sex not indicated
The following are reasons for not reporting concussions:|
Believe the injury was not serious (72.7%); not knowing it was a concussion (18.2%); not want the team down (4.5%); Believe concussions are part of the game (4.5%).
|Brown et al. ||240 high school athletes (cross-country, volleyball, soccer, tennis, drill, cheer, colour guard, band, and swimming) and their 10 coaches||240 F athletes, 10 coaches||Student-athletes||Questionnaire||Female triad risk||***||Average triad knowledge score differed among teams (p = 0.01); triad awareness among athletes (average knowledge score was 2.79 ± 1.61 out of 8).|
|Chan et al. ||410 athletes from individual sports (athletics-track, athletics-field, badminton, gymnastics, swimming, and triathlon) and team sports (cricket, soccer, field hockey, basketball, rugby and water polo)||
When controlled motivation is low: autonomous motivation ↓ → doping intention ↑ (p < 0.01).|
When controlled motivation is high: no significant between autonomous motivation and doping intention (p = 0.57).
When autonomous motivation was low: controlled motivation↓ → doping intention ↑ (p < 0.01); when autonomous motivation was low: no significant between controlled motivation and doping intention (p = 0.50).
|Coffey et al. ||149 professional and semi-professional soccer players||149 M||Professional||Questionnaire||Concussion||***||Concussion report odds: defenders > other playing positions (p = 0.05).|
|Cournoyer and Tripp ||334 varsity high school soccer players||
Sex not indicated
|Student-athletes||Questionnaire||Concussion||**||No correlations were found between the method of education and the knowledge of symptoms or consequences of concussion (1 − β = 0.82).|
|Kerr et al. ||214 former NCAA collegiate athletes||
|Mixed||Questionnaire||Concussion||***||In low/noncontact sports: self-identified sports-related concussions non-disclosure: M > F (PR = 2.88).|
|Kuhl et al. ||94 equestrian riders||
27 M, 67 F
|Mixed||Questionnaire||Concussion||**||Experience level did not influence the rates of concussion (p value not reported).|
|Kurowski et al. ||496 high school athletes||
384 M 112F
212 American football
No association found between improved concussion knowledge and improved self-reported behaviours (p = 0.63);|
Age (p = 0.01) ↑ & female sex (p = 0.03) → concussion knowledge↑;
Age (p = 0.01) ↓ & female sex (p = 0.00) & soccer participation (p = 0.02) → self-reported behaviours ↑.
|Ma ||236 basketball players||
|Mixed||Questionnaire||Orofacial injuries||**||The incidence of dental and oral injuries was related to the length of training time (p value not reported).|
|McCrea et al. ||1532 varsity soccer players from 20 high schools||
Sex not indicated
|Student-athletes||Questionnaire||Concussion||***||No significant relationship found between a player’s prior concussion history and the likelihood of concussion reporting during the season.|
|Meyers et al. ||298 athletes in non-traditional non-NCAA sports (downhill skiing, martial arts, rock climbing, rodeo, skydiving and telemark skiing) and traditional NCAA sports (equestrian, golf, swimming/diving, tennis and track)||
152 non-NCAA athletes
146 traditional NCAA athletes
|Mixed||Questionnaire||Pain-coping||***||Women athletes pain-coping traits: non-traditional individual-sport activity < coach-structured traditional NCAA sports (Wilks’ λ F6,291 = 12.92; p = 0.00).|
|Miyashita et al. ||454 high school athletes||
|Student-athletes||Questionnaire||Concussion||**||Participants were asked if the importance of a game/event should dictate when they are allowed to return to play, and 50.9% stated “yes” with no difference between sexes (p = 0.10) or age (p = 0.19).|
|Muwonge et al. ||360 professional athletes (basketball, soccer, handball, rugby, athletics and cycling)||
|Professional||Questionnaire||Medicine use||****||Female athletes mean PEAS scores: with a prior doping history > without doping history (p = 0.10)|
|Norcross et al. ||66 soccer and basketball coaches from 15 high schools||
16 boys soccer
17 girls soccer
18 boys basketball
15 girls basketball
|Student-athletes||Questionnaire||Lower extremity injury||***||
Coaches’ injury prevention programs awareness: girls’ team > boys’ team (p = 0.00);|
Soccer > basketball (p = 0.05).
|Onyeaso and Adegbesan ||42 coaches of secondary school athletes||
|Student-athletes||Questionnaire||Orofacial injuries||**||Statistically significant association (p < 0.05) was found between the sports and usage of mouthguards by the athletes as claimed by the coaches.|
|Overbye ||775 elite athletes from 40 sports||
Interests in anabolic-androgenic steroids use: M > F (p = 0.00);|
Speed and power sports athletes> motor-skill sport athletes (p = 0.02);
Team sports athletes >motor-skill sport athlete (p = 0.08);
Endurance sport athletes > motor-skill sport athletes (p = 0.15).
|Register-Mihalik ||167 high school athletes||
|Student-athletes||Questionnaire||Concussion||***||No association found between increased athlete knowledge and attitude and prevalence of playing while experiencing concussion symptoms (p = 0.84).|
|Reuter and Short ||154 noncontact/limited-contact sports athletes||
Swimming 27 M 18 FTrack 26 M 28 FBaseball 25 M
|Elite||Questionnaire||Perceived risk of injury||**||
Uncontrollable injury scores showed a significant difference between 3 sports (all about p = 0.00) with baseball players fearing the most risk and swimmers fearing the least.|
Risk of controllable injuries showed a significant difference between swimming and baseball (p = 0.01) with baseball players fearing the most risk and swimmers the least.
Risk of upper body injury scores indicated a significant difference between track and swimming (p = 0.00) and track and baseball (p = 0.00).
Swimmers reported the most fear of upper body injury while track athletes scored the lowest.
Risk of re-injury scores indicated a significant difference between track and baseball (p = 0.00), and baseball and swimming (p = 0.00).
|Shendell et al. ||1138 endurance athletes (full marathon, half marathon, and wheelchair athletes)||
About 12.10% participants reported physician-diagnosed asthma;|
84.6% correctly knew an asthma action plan can prevent hospitalizations;
18.0% reported they had an asthma action plan;24.8% had ever been asked to demonstrate medication use (controller and/or rescue inhaler) but only 2 people performed daily peak flow measurements.
|Short et al. ||434 contact sports athletes||
Hockey, 86 M 76 F
Soccer. 32 M 32 F
American football, 208 M
|Elite||Questionnaire||Perceived risk of injury||**||
Worry/concern↑ → probability of injury↑ (p < 0.01).|
Worry/concern ↑ → confidence in avoiding injury↓ (p < 0.01).
Perceived probability of injury↑ → confidence in avoiding injury↓ (p < 0.01).
Confidence in avoiding injury: M soccer previous injured< M hockey Previous injured (ES = 0.52).
Confidence in avoiding injury: M soccer uninjured > M hockey uninjured (ES = 0.68).
Confidence in avoiding injury: F uninjured > F previous injured (ES = 0.38.
Perceived probability of injury: F previous injured > M previous injured (ES = 0.72).
Confidence in avoiding injury: F soccer >F hockey (ES = 0.86).
Worry/concern about injury: F hockey >F soccer (ES = 0.85).
Worry/concern: M soccer> M hockey (ES = 0.25).
|Shroyer and Stewart ||53 rural high school coaches||
|Student-athletes||Questionnaire||Concussion||**||13% of coaches knew and 48% did not know high school athletes take longer to recover from a concussion than do older athletes.|
|Sorkkila, Aunola and Ryba ||391 student-athletes from 6 upper secondary sport schools and their parents||
49% M 51% F
188 M 260 F
The higher success expectations in sport: school burnout group > mild sport burnout group (p < 0.01);|
The higher success expectations in school: mild sport burnout group > school burnout group (p < 0.05).
|Strotmeyer and Lystad ||175 amateur Muay Thai fighters||
|High-performance amateur||Questionnaire||General injuries||***||Muay Thai fighters perceived the risk of injury in their own sport to be average and significantly lower than that in other collision and contact sports (p < 0.01).|
|Tiwari et al. ||320 national and international level players (wrestling, karate judo, boxing, Wushu, fencing, taekwondo, hockey, canoeing and kayaking, rowing, sailing, horse riding, and shooting)||
|Professional||Questionnaire||Orofacial injuries||**||Awareness and use of mouthguards: contact sports athletes > noncontact sports athletes (p = 0.00).|
|Tulunoglu and Oezbek ||274 semi-professional or amateur boxers and taekwondo players||
Mouthguard awareness: players with a dental trauma experience > players without a dental trauma experience (p = 0.00);|
Players with a facial trauma experience > players without a facial trauma experience (p = 0.01).
|Therkorn and Shendell ||120 participants including college athletes, coaches and athlete parents/guardians||
37 college athletes
57 athlete parents/guardians
|Student-athletes||Questionnaire||Asthma||**||The percentage of correct responses by coaches to 5 asthma knowledge questions ranged from 12% to 88%.|
|Williams et al. ||26 professional soccer players||26 M||Professional||Questionnaire, interview||Concussion||****||
The mean score on concussion knowledge was 16.4 ± 2.9 (range 11–22) and the attitude score was 59.6 ± 8.5 (range 41–71);|
The interview responses identified inconsistencies between the concussion knowledge/attitude and the intended behaviours, endorsing multiple concussion misconceptions, and revealed barriers to concussion reporting.
|Zech and Wellmann ||139 professional and youth players||
24 First Team players
18 U23 players
25 U19 players
17 U17 players
20 U16 players
35 U15 players
Sex not indicated
|Mixed||Questionnaire||General injuries||***||Perceptions on risk factors for injuries: athletes with previous injuries > athletes without previous injuries (fatigue: p = 0.04; previous injuries: p = 0.01; environment p = 0.00).|