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Table 2 Summary of the included interventions

From: Follow-up efficacy of physical exercise interventions on fall incidence and fall risk in healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

No. Study Participantsa,b Exercise protocol Intervention and follow-up Outcome
1 Ballard et al. [90] Total: n = 39
IG: n = 20, 72.4 ± 6.5 years, 20 F
CG: n = 19, 73.4 ± 5.4 years, 19 F
Functional balance exercises (one leg balance tasks, half squats, lunges, and standing leg raises), strength exercises with elastic bands while seated (2 sets of 10 repetitions), low-impact aerobics routine (walking, stepping, and lunging in different directions while using intermittent arm motions) Intervention:
Duration: 3.8 months
Session: 1 h
Frequency: 3×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: no
Follow-up: 12 months
No significant reduction in fall rate and risk
2 Beyer et al. [50] Total: n = 53
IG: n = 24, 78.6 ± 5.1 years, 24 F
CG: n = 29, 77.6 ± 4.4 years, 29 F
Standard resistance exercise (70–75% of 1 RM), balance training, and flexibility Intervention:
Duration: 6 months
Session: 1 h
Frequency: 2×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: no
Follow-up: 12 months (starting from begin of study)
No significant reduction in fall risk
3 Fitzharris et al. [73] Total: n = 272, 76.1 ± 5 years
IG: n = 135
CG: n = 137
Strength and balance exercises supplemented with daily home exercises, 30–35% of the exercise contents were balance related Intervention:
Duration: 3.8 months
Session: 1 h
Frequency: 1×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: yes
Follow-up: up to 18 months (starting from begin of study)
Significant reduction in fall rate and risk
4,5 Freiberger et al. [82]a,b Total: n = 217
IG (a): n = 65 (62 analyzed), 76.4 ± 4.2 years, 31 F
IG: (b): n = 69 (65 analyzed), 75.4 ± 3.8 years, 27 F
CG: n = 83 (74 analyzed), 76.5 ± 3.9 years, 39 F
IG (a): strength (20%), balance (20%), motor coordination (30%), competence (15%), and perceptual training (15%)
IG (b): strength and flexibility training (33%), balance and motor coordination training (33%), and endurance training (33%)
Intervention for (a) and (b):
Duration: 4 months
Session: 1 h
Frequency: 2×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: yes
Follow-up: 12 months
Significant reduction in fall rate and risk in IG (b)
6 Halvarsson et al. [94] Total: n = 59
IG: n = 38 (30 analyzed), 76 years, 21 F
CG: n = 21 (18 analyzed), 78 years, 15 F
Progressive balance training program that includes dual- and multi-task exercises (cognitive and/or motor) Intervention:
Duration: 3 months
Session: 45 min
Frequency: 3×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: no
Follow-up: 15 months (starting from begin of study)
No significant reduction in fall rate and risk
7, 8 Iliffe et al. [83]a,b Total: n = 572
IG: (a): n = 184, 72.9 years
IG: (b): n = 178, 72.8 years
CG: n = 210, 73.1 years
IG (a): Fall-management exercise program of progressive muscle strengthening, progressive balance retraining, bone loading, endurance (including walking) and flexibility training, functional floor skills, and adapted Tai Chi
IG (b): Moderate intensity muscle strength, balance retraining, and walking plan
Intervention:
Duration: 6 months
Session: 1 h for group-based, 30 min for home-sessions
Frequency: 3×/week
Format: IG (a) home and group-based, IG (b) home-based only
Home exercise: yes
Follow-up: 18 months after the end of intervention
Significant reduction in fall rate
9 Kamide et al. [95] Total: n = 57
IG: n = 28 (23 analyzed), 71.0 ± 3.8 years, 23 F
CG: n = 29 (27 analyzed), 70.9 ± 3.4 years, 27 F
Thera-Band moderate intensity strength exercises for hip and knee, four exercises, 1–2 sets of 15 repetitions, balance training in terms of fast stepping exercises in AP and ML directions 10 repetitions in each direction for right and left leg, and impact training in form of heel drop and tip toes exercises, 60–100 repetitions Intervention:
Duration: 6 months
Session: not stated
Frequency: 3×/week
Format: home-based
Home exercise: yes
Follow-up: 6 months after the end of intervention
No significant reduction in fall rate and risk
10,11,12 Karinkanta et al. [51]a,b,c Total: n = 149
IG: (a): n = 37 (33 analyzed), 72.7 ± 2.5 years, 33 F
IG: (b): n = 37 (31 analyzed), 72.9 ± 2.3 years, 31 F
IG: (c): n = 38 (30 analyzed), 72.9 ± 2.2 years, 30 F
CG: n = 37 (26 analyzed), 72 ± 2.1 years, 26 F
IG (a): Progressive resistance training with an intensity from 50 to 80% of 1 RM
IG (b): Balance-jumping training: balance and agility training, jumps, modified and step aerobics, and impact exercises
IG (c): Combined training: resistance and balance-jumping training in alternating weeks
Intervention:
Duration: 12 months
Session: 50 min
Frequency: 3×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: no
Follow-up: 12 months after the end of intervention
Significant reduction in fall rate and risk
13 Li et al. [89] Total: n = 256, 77.48 ± 4.95 years, 179 F
IG: n = 125 (95 analyzed)
CG: n = 131 (93 analyzed)
Tai Chi Yang style Intervention:
Duration: 6.5 months
Session: 1 h
Frequency: 3×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: no
Follow-up: 6 months
Significant reduction in fall rate and risk
14 Liu-Ambrose et al. [96] Total: n = 59
IG: n = 31 (28 analyzed), 81.4 ± 6.2 years, 22 F
CG: n = 28 (24 analyzed), 83.1 ± 6.3 years, 19 F
Otago exercise program of balance and strength retraining exercises Intervention:
Duration: 6 m
Session: 30 min
Frequency: 3×/week
Format: home-based
Home exercise: yes
Follow-up: 6 months
Significant reduction in fall rate and risk
15 Logan et al. [129] Total: n = 204, 78.86 years
IG: n = 102 (82 analyzed), 67 F
CG: n = 102 (75 analyzed), 65 F
Strength, balance exercises, and occupational functional therapy. Intervention:
Duration: 1.5 months
Session: 2 h
Frequency: 2×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: yes
Follow-up: 12 m
Significant reduction in fall rate and risk
16 Logghe et al. [97] Total: n = 269
IG: n = 138 (114 analyzed), 77.5 ± 4.7 years, 96 F
CG: n = 131 (99 analyzed), 76.8 ± 4.6 years, 95 F
Tai Chi Yang style (10 positions) Intervention:
Duration: 3.2 months
Session: 1 h
Frequency: 2×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: yes
Follow-up: 12 months
No significant reduction in fall rate and risk
17 Lord et al. [101] Total: n = 197
IG: n = 100 (75 analyzed), 71.6 ± 5.5 years
CG: n = 97 (94 analyzed), 71.7 ± 5.3 years
Strength exercises: lifting one’s own body weight (push up exercise), opposing muscle group resistive exercises, balance training: standing on the one leg, hand-eye and foot-eye coordination, ballgames requiring catching with the one hand while standing or moving, kicking a moving ball, throwing to a moving target, running under a skipping rope, and team ballgames Intervention:
Duration: 12  months (four 10–12 weeks terms) with 2 weeks interterm breaks and 5 weeks holiday break.
Session:1  h
Frequency: 2×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: no
Follow-up: 12 months
No significant reduction in fall rate and risk
18 Means et al. [86] Total: n = 99
IG: n = 47 (31 analyzed), 75 ± 4.9 years
CG: n = 52 (34 analyzed), 75 ± 5.7 years
Balance and mobility exercises: postural control, flexibility, endurance walking, and muscle coordination exercises with training on obstacle courses Intervention:
Duration: 1.5  months
Session: 1 h
Frequency: 3×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: no
Follow-up: 6  months
No significant reduction in fall rate
19 Means et al. [98] Total: n = 338, 73.5 years, 193 F
IG: n = 181 (144 analyzed)
CG: n = 157 (94 analyzed)
Balance, strength, and mobility program: Active stretching, postural control, endurance walking, and coordination exercises to improve balance and mobility, strengthening exercises for abdomen, upper, and lower limb muscles Intervention:
Duration: 1.5 months
Session: 90 min
Frequency: 3×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: no
Follow-up: 6  months
Significant reduction in fall rate and risk
20 Morgan et al. [84] Total: n = 229
IG: n = 119, 81 ± 7.6 years, 86 F
CG: n = 110, 80.1 ± 7.4 years, 76 F
Low-intensity exercise program in sitting and standing postures targeting muscle strength and joint flexibility Intervention:
Duration: 2 months
Session: 45 min
Frequency: 3×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: no
Follow-up: 12 months
Significant reduction in fall risk in participants with low physical function level
21 Salminen et al. [130] Total: n = 591
IG: n = 293 (290 analyzed), 251 F
CG: n = 298 (292 analyzed), 246 F
Balance, coordination and weight shifting exercises, and circuit training for muscle strength Intervention:
Duration: 12 months
Session: 45  min
Frequency: 1×/2 weeks
Format: group
Home exercise: yes
Follow-up: 24 months after the end of intervention
Significant reduction in fall rate and risk
22 Suzuki et al. [99] Total: n = 52
IG: n = 28 (22 analyzed), 77.31 ± 3.40 years
CG: n = 24 (22 analyzed), 78.64 ± 4.39 years
Muscle strength training, balance, and gait training, and Tai Chi exercises Intervention:
Duration: 6 months
Session: 1 h
Frequency: 1×/2 weeks
Format: group
Home exercise: yes
Follow-up: 20 months
Significant reduction in fall rate and risk
23,24 Taylor et al. [76]a,b Total: n = 684
IG (a): n = 233 (180 analyzed), 75.3 ± 7.0 years, 161 F
IG (b): n = 220 (174 analyzed), 74.4 ± 6.2 years, 165 F
CG: n = 231 (174 analyzed), 73.7 ± 6.2 years, 176 F
IG (a): Tai Chi exercises once weekly
IG (b): Tai Chi exercises twice weekly
Intervention:
Duration: 5 months
Session: 1 h
Frequency: 1×/week (IG a), 2×/week (IG b)
Format: group
Home exercise: no
Follow-up: 17 months from study entry point
No significant reduction in fall rate and risk
25 Trombetti et al. [88] Total: n = 134
IG: n = 66 (56 analyzed), 75 ± 8 years, 64 F
CG: n = 68 (56 analyzed), 76 ± 6 years, 65 F
Music-based multi-task exercise program (i.e., Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics), e.g., handling of objects (balls), walking in time to the music, and responding to changes in the music’s rhythmic patterns. The exercises challenged the balance by requiring multidirectional weight shifting, walk-and-turn sequences, and exaggerated upper body movements during walking and standing Intervention:
Duration: 6.2 months
Session: 1 h
Frequency: 1×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: no
Follow-up: 6 months
Significant reduction in fall rate and risk
26 Uusi-Rasi et al. [87] Total: n = 175
IG: n = 86, 74.8 ± 2.9 years, 86 F
CG: n = 89, 73.8 ± 3.1 years, 89 F
Progressive strength, balance, agility, and mobility training. Intervention:
Duration: 24 m
Session: 1 h
Frequency: 2×/week in the first year, 1×/week in the second year
Format: group
Home exercise: no
Follow-up: 24 months after the end of intervention
No significant reduction in fall rate
27 Weerdesteyn et al. [100] Total: n = 113
IG: n = 79 (78 analyzed), 73.4 ± 5.4 years, 63 F
CG: n = 28 (28 analyzed), 74.9 ± 6.5 years, 19 F
Balance, gait, and coordination training in an obstacle course; e.g., walking over stepping stones. The second session in the week: walking with different speeds and directions. Practicing fall techniques in forward, backward, and lateral directions Intervention:
Duration: 1.2 months
Session: 1.5 h
Frequency: 2×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: no
Follow-up: 7 months
Significant reduction in fall rate and risk
28 Whitehead et al. [85] Total: n = 140
IG: n = 70 (58 analyzed), 79.5 ± 6.8 years, 48 F
CG: n = 70 (65 analyzed), 76.1 ± 6.9 years, 52 F
No exercise descriptions are stated Intervention:
Duration: 3 months
Session: 1–2 h
Frequency: 1–2×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: no
Follow-up: 6 months (from the moment of group assignment)
No significant reduction in fall risk
29 Yamada et al. [78] Total: n = 60
IG: n = 30 (29 analyzed)
CG: n = 30 (29 analyzed)
Trail-walking exercise: walking (multidirectional steps in the forward, backward, lateral, and oblique directions) from/around numbered flags. In addition to 20-min moderate intensity aerobic exercise, 20-min progressive strength training, 10-min flexibility and balance exercises Intervention:
Duration: 4 months
Session: 1.5 h
Frequency: 1×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: no
Follow-up: 12 months
No significant reduction in fall rate and risk
30 Yamada et al. [79] Total: n = 157
IG: n = 78 (72 analyzed), 85.8 ± 5.9 years, 63 F
CG: n = 79 (73 analyzed), 85.3 ± 5.7 years, 64 F
Complex obstacle negotiation exercise; adding obstacles to the area of trail walk exercises and increasing the difficulty throughout the training Intervention:
Duration: 6 months
Session: 45 min
Frequency: 1×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: no
Follow-up: 12 months
Significant reduction in fall rate and risk
31 Yamada et al. [77] Total: n = 264
IG: n = 132 (112 analyzed), 76.2 ± 8.5 years, 67 F
CG: n = 132 (118 analyzed), 77.2 ± 7.6 years, 65 F
Multi-target stepping tasks in the form of walking in different zigzag patterns, moderate intensity aerobic exercise (5 min), progressive strength training (10 min), flexibility, and balance exercises (15 min) Intervention:
Duration: 6 months
Session: ~ 35 min
Frequency: 2×/week
Format: group
Home exercise: no
Follow-up: 12 months
Significant reduction in fall rate and risk
  1. Unless otherwise indicated, the CG did not exercise. The studies followed by the letters a or b or c mean that they include different intervention groups, and each letter resembles one intervention group
  2. F female, IG intervention group, CG control group, AP anteroposterior, ML medio-lateral, RM repetition maximum
  3. aAge data are mean ± standard deviation
  4. bThe number in parentheses indicates is the number of the participants who continued the follow-up duration to the end, and their fall diaries were included in the final analysis