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Table 2 Prevalence of having experienced SIPE

From: Occurrence, Risk Factors, Prognosis and Prevention of Swimming-Induced Pulmonary Oedema: a Systematic Review

Reference Study design Subjects Sampling frame Sample size Response rate Type of exposure Case definition Case ascertainment method Results (n = SIPE cases) Quality of evidence (see Additional file 4 for more detail)
Miller et al. [19] Cross-sectional survey Triathletes 140,000 members of USA Triathlon 1400 after 23 exclusions due to age < 20 or incomplete responses 1.3% Open water/pool, wetsuit/no wetsuit, long/short course, hot/cold climate Cough productive of pink frothy or blood-tinged secretions Questionnaire to all participants 1.4% (n = 20) Good although very low response rate and use of non-validated self-reported questionnaire
  1. SIPE swimming-induced pulmonary oedema