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Table 2 Description of included studies/data sets

From: The effect of resistance training interventions on weight status in youth: a meta-analysis

Study Country Participant details Intervention details Outcome measures Quality score
N Age (years ± SD) or range Pubertal stage (Tanner) Weight status % males Sex of training group Location Weeks/× per week (min per session) Sets/reps /intensity Exercises
Benson et al. 2008 [33] New Zealand EG 37 EG 12.3 ± 1.3 1–5 Mixed 59% Mixed Community 8 weeks/× 2 2 sets,8 reps, 80%1RM Bicep screw curl, tricep extension, one arm dumbbell row, one dumbbell front raise, bench press, standing leg abduction, standing leg curl, calf raise, squat, abdominal crunch, abdominal reverse crunch. Body mass (kg), body mass index (BMI), body fat (%), fat free mass (kg), fat mass (kg), waist circumference (cm) 2
CG 41 CG 12.2 ± 1.3
Chaouachi 2014 (a) [34] Tunisia EG 17 EG 11 ± 1 1–2 Healthy 100% Males Community 12 weeks/× 2 1–3 sets, 8–12 reps, / Squats, lunges, alternate flat and incline chest press, unilateral shoulder flies or presses Body mass (kg), body fat (%) 2
CG 13 CG 11 ± 1
Chaouachi et al. 2014 (b) [34] Tunisia EG 17 EG 11 ± 1 1–2 Healthy 100% Males Community 12 weeks/× 2 1–3 sets, 8–12 reps, Max weight, good form Cleans, snatches, shoulder push press, kettlebell/dumbbell cross body pull. Body mass (kg), body fat (%) 2
CG 11 CG 11 ± 1
Dos Santos Cunha et al. 2015 [35] Brazil EG 9 EG 10.4 ± 0.5 1 Healthy 100% Males School 12 weeks/× 3 (60 m) 3 sets, 6–15 reps, 60–80%1RM Knee extension, elbow flexion, leg curl, bench press, hip adduction, inverse fly, and hip abduction Body mass (kg), body fat (%), fat free mass (g), fat mass (g) 1
CG 9 CG 10.9 ± 0.7
Davis et al. 2009 [36] USA EG 17 EG 15.5 ± 1 4–5 O/W / / Community 16 weeks/× 2 (60 m) 1–3 sets, 3–15 reps, 62–97% 1RM Session 1 = leg press, deadlift, biceps curl, triceps extension, shoulder press. Session 2 = bench press, lat pull down, leg extension, leg curl, calf raises Body mass (kg), body mass index (BMI), BMI percentile, BMI z score, fat mass (kg), lean mass (kg) 2
CG 21 CG 15.5 ± 1
Dorgo et al. 2009 [37] USA EG 63 EG 16 ± 1.2 / Healthy / / School 18 weeks/× 3 (80 m) 2–4 sets, 8–14 reps, partner resistance Squat, seated chest press, bent-over row, seated row, lat pulldown, leg extension, overhead triceps extension, step lunge, shoulder press, seated fly, Romanian deadlift, good-morning, shoulder press, upright row, lying triceps extension, seated back extension, extended arm pressdown, standing biceps curl Body mass index (BMI), skinfolds (mm) 2
CG 129 CG 15.8 ± 1.1
Faigenbaum et al. 1993 [38] USA EG 14 EG 10.8 1–2 Healthy 68% Mixed / 8 weeks/× 2 (35 m) 3 sets, 10–15 reps, 50–100%1RM Leg extension, leg curl, overhead press, bicep curl, chest press Body mass (kg), skinfolds (mm), waist circumference (cm) 2
CG 10 CG 9.9
Lau et al. 2004 [30] Hong Kong EG 21 10–17 / Obese 68% Mixed Community 6 weeks/× 3(60 m) 3 sets > 5reps, 70–75%1RM Chest press, lat pull down, shoulder press, leg press, leg extension, leg curl, heel raise, bicep curl, tricep extension, adjusted push-up Body mass (kg), Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (cm), hip circumference (cm), waist to hip ratio, lean mass (kg), fat mass (kg), body fat (%) 2
CG 17
Lillegaard et al. 1997 (a) [39] USA EG 20 EG 11.2 1–2 Healthy 100% Mixed / 12 weeks/× 3(60 m) 3 sets, 10 reps, 10RM Barbell curl, tricep extension, leg press, leg curl, lat pulldown, bench press Skinfolds (mm) 3
CG 18 CG 10.1
Lillegaard et al. 1997 (b) [39] USA EG 16 EG 14 3–5 Healthy 100% Mixed / 12 weeks/× 3(60 m) 3 sets, 10 reps, 10RM Barbell curl, tricep extension, leg press, leg curl, lat pulldown, bench press Skinfolds (mm) 3
CG 10 CG 13.1
Lillegaard et al., 1997 (c) [39] USA EG 8 EG 9.5 1–2 Healthy 0% Mixed / 12 weeks/× 3 (60 m) 3 sets, 10 reps, 10RM Barbell curl, tricep extension, leg press, leg curl, lat pulldown, bench press Skinfolds (mm) 3
CG 6 CG 9.6
Lillegaard et al. 1997 (d) [39] USA EG 8 EG 12.6 3–5 Healthy 0% Mixed / 12 weeks/× 3 (60 m) 3 sets, 10 reps, 10RM Barbell curl, tricep extension, leg press, leg curl, lat pulldown, bench press Skinfolds (mm) 3
CG 5 CG 12.6
Lubans et al. 2010 (a) [40] Australia EG 15 EG 14.9 ± 0.6 / Mixed 0% Mixed School—free time 8 weeks/× 2 (50 m) 2 sets, 8–12 reps, max reps Squat, lunge, calf raise, bent over row, bench press, front raise, biceps curl, triceps extension, crunch and Russian twist Body mass (kg), waist circumference (cm), body mass index (BMI), fat mass (kg), fat free mass (kg), body fat (%) 2
CG 16 CG 14.5 ± 0.6
Lubans et al. 2010 (b) [40] Australia EG 22 EG 15.3 ± 0.8 / Mixed 100% Mixed School—free time 8 weeks/× 2 (50 m) 2 sets, 8–12 reps, max reps Squat, lunge, calf raise, bent over row, bench press, front raise, biceps curl, triceps extension, crunch and Russian twist Body mass (kg), waist circumference (cm), body mass index (BMI), fat mass (kg), fat free mass (kg), body fat (%) 2
CG 14 CG 14.8 ± 0.4
Schranz et al. 2014 [41] Australia EG 30 EG 14.9 ± 1.4 2+ O/W/ obese 100% Males Community 24 weeks/× 3 1–3 sets, 8–12 reps, progress with good form Bench press, leg press, lat pulldown, leg curl (lying or seated), shoulder press (seated), seated row, biceps curl, triceps pressdown, calf raise (seated) and abdominal crunch. Body mass (kg), body mass index (BMI), skinfolds (mm), body fat (%), lean mass (kg) 1
CG 26 CG 15.1 ± 1.6
Schwingshandl et al. 1999 [42] Austria EG 14 EG 11 ± 2.5 / Obese 43% Mixed Community 12 weeks/× 2 (60 m) 2 sets, 10 reps, 50–100%1RM Lying leg press; seated leg extensions and leg curls; seated bench press; lat pulldown to the front and long pulley row; seated shoulder press; triceps pushdowns and triceps extension at the dips machine; dumbbell biceps curls; calf raises seated and crunches Body mass (kg), body mass index (BMI) SDS, fat free mass (kg) 2
CG 16 CG 12.2 ± 2.7
Shaibi et al. 2006 [43] USA EG 11 EG 15.1 ± 0.5 3+ O/W 100% Males Community 16 weeks/× 2 1–3 sets, 3–15 reps, 52–97%1RM session 1 = Leg press, dead lift biceps curl, triceps extension, shoulder press, session 2 = bench press, lat pull down, leg extension, leg curl calf raises Body mass (kg), body mass index (BMI) percentile, fat mass (kg), lean mass (kg), body fat % 1
CG 11 CG 15.6 ± 0.5
Siegel et al. 1989 (a) [44] USA EG 26 EG 8.4 / Healthy 100% Mixed School—free time 12 weeks/× 3 (30) 30 s work, 15 s rest, progress to 45 s work circuit training, body weights and weights up to 4.5lbs Upper body self-supported locomotor movements (i.e., wheelbarrow, seal walk, crabwalk, etc.). A choreographed weight routine used tennis ball cans or detergent bottles filled with sand. Weights of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 lb. were offered. The third format was circuit training using various types of accessories as resistance, tennis balls for squeezing, and strips of rubber tire to pull Body mass (kg), skinfolds (mm), body fat (%) 1
CG 30 CG 8.6
Siegel et al. 1989 (b) [44] USA EG 24 EG 8.7 / Healthy 0% Mixed School—free time 12 weeks/× 3(30) 30 s work, 15 s rest, progress to 45 s work, circuit training, body weights and weights up to 4.5lbs Upper body self-supported locomotor movements (i.e., wheelbarrow, seal walk, crabwalk, etc.). A choreographed weight routine used tennis ball cans or detergent bottles filled with sand. Weights of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 lb. were offered. The third format was circuit training using various types of accessories as resistance, tennis balls for squeezing, and strips of rubber tire to pull Body mass (kg), skinfolds (mm), body fat (%) 1
CG 16 CG 8.4
Sigal et al. 2014 [29] Canada EG 78 EG 15.9 ± 1.5 4–5 Obese 31% Mixed Community 24 weeks/× 4 2–3 sets, 6–15 reps, moderate for 15 reps then 8RM 1: Bench press, chest fly lateral raise, shoulder, shrugs, bicep curl, tricep press, abdominal crunches. 2: Incline bench press, incline chest fly, shoulder press, front raise, preacher curl, assisted tricep dips, sit-ups. 3: Squat, leg curl, front lat pull down, seated row, lunge straight leg raise, abdominal crunches. 4: Leg press, leg extension, dumbbell pullover, seated row, lying knee extensions Body mass (kg), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (cm), body fat (%), fat mass (kg), lean mass (kg) 1
CG 76 CG 15.6 ± 1.3
Takai et al. 2013 [45] Japan EG 36 EG 13.6 ± 0.6 / Healthy 100% males School—free time 8 weeks/× 4–6 (> 10 m) 100 reps, body weight Squats Body mass (kg), body mass index (BMI), body fat %, lean mass (kg) 1
CG 58 CG 13.8 ± 0.5
Treuth et al. 1998 [27] USA EG 11 EG 8.7 ± 0.7 1–2 Obese 0% Females School—free time 20 weeks/× 3 (20 m) 2 sets, 12–15 reps, 50%1RM Bench press, military press, lat pull down, bicep curl, tricep extension, ab curls, leg press Body mass (kg), body fat (%), fat mass (kg), lean mass (kg), fat free mass (kg) 1
CG 11 CG 8.4 ± 0.9
Velez et al. 2010 [46] USA EG 13 EG 16.1 ± 0.2 / Mixed 57% Mixed School 12 weeks/× 3 (90 m) 2–3 sets, 10–15 reps, 80% 10RM Bench press, seated row, shoulder press, lat pulldowns, flies, bicep curls, and tricep pushdowns or lower body exercises including squats, Romanian dead lift, leg extensions, leg curls, lunges, and calf raises. Body fat (%), lean mass (kg), fat mass (kg), body mass index (BMI) 2
CG 15
Yoshimoto et al. 2016 [47] Japan EG 27 EG 13.8 ± 0.6 1–5 Healthy 0% Females School—free time 8 weeks/× 4–6 (> 10 m) 100 reps, body weight Squats Body mass (kg), Body mass index (BMI), body fat %, lean mass (kg) 1
CG 20 CG 13.8 ± 0.5