Skip to main content

Table 1 Sleep duration and quality in elite athletes measured using polysomnography, electroencephalogram system, actigraphy, or sleep logs

From: The Variability of Sleep Among Elite Athletes

Study Subjects Age (years) Sport(s) Training and competition volume (h/week) Time in bed (h:mins) Sleep latency (mins) Time asleep (h:mins) Time awake/wake after sleep onset (h:mins) Sleep efficiency (%) Methodology
Fuller et al. [98] 21 M 22.5 ± 2.7 Australian Rules football, rugby    16 ± 16 7:27 ± 0:46 0:41 ± 0:22 88.7 ± 4.9 Polysomnography
Sargent et al. [117] 10 M 15.6 ± 0.5 Soccer   9:18 ± 0:54 18 ± 8 8:00 ± 0:42 1:04 ± 0:39 86.0 ± 5.0 Polysomnography
Taylor et al. [118] 7 F 19.0 ± 2.0 Swimming   7:50 ± 0:32 19 ± 4 7:31 ± 0:30 0:04 ± 0:06   Polysomnography
Tuomilehto et al. [12]a 23 M   Ice hockey   8:59 18 6:55 0:54   Polysomnography
Whitworth-Turner et al. [15] 12 M 19.0 ± 1.0 Soccer   9:00 25 ± 9 8:06 ± 0:33 0:12 93.0 ± 3.0 EEG system
Caia et al. [80] 7 M 24.3 ± 2.1 Rugby   8:00 ± 0:30 17 ± 8 6:54 ± 0:24   87.3 ± 3.0 Actigraphy
Caia et al. [102] 15 M 25.5 ± 3.7 Rugby   8:35 ± 1:02 16 ± 18 7:31 ± 0:55   87.8 ± 3.8 Actigraphy
Carriço et al. [119] 25 M 26.3 ± 4.7 Soccer   7:40 ± 0:42 24 ± 9 6:36 ± 0:45 0:30 ± 0:16 85.0 ± 5.0 Actigraphy
Dunican et al. [92] 9 M/F 18.9. ± 2.9 Judo    26 ± 36 7:25 ± 0:07 0:06 ± 0:04 89.0 ± 6.0 Actigraphy
Eagles and Lovell [120] 10 M 24.3 ± 2.6 Rugby     7:41 ± 1:29   87.0 ± 2.0 Actigraphy
Knufinke et al. [44] 98 M/F 18.8 ± 3.0 Road cycling, triathlon, mountain bike, handball, volleyball, soccer 19.3 ± 5.1 8:32 ± 1:10 14 ± 16 7:50 ± 1:08 0:33 ± 0:17 88.5 ± 5.5 Actigraphy
Lastella et al. [26] 124 M/F 22.2 ± 3.0 Australian Rules football, basketball, soccer, rugby, cycling, mountain bike, race walking, swimming, triathlon   8:24 19 6:48   86.2 Actigraphy
Lastella et al. [121] 21 M 19.9 ± 1.7 Cycling   9:12 ± 0:18 28 ± 14 7:24 ± 0:36   86.4 ± 0.4 Actigraphy
Leeder et al. [14] 46 M/F   Canoeing, diving, rowing, short track speed skating   8:36 ± 0:53 18 ± 17 6:55 ± 0:43 1:17 ± 0:31 80.6 ± 6.4 Actigraphy
Mah et al. [29] 11 M 19.4 ± 1.4 Basketball     6:41 ± 1:02    Actigraphy
O’Donnell et al. [122] 26 F 23.0 ± 6.0 Netball   9:05 ± 0:47 29 ± 16 7:16 ± 0:51   80.6 ± 6.5 Actigraphy
Pitchford et al. [123] 19 M 22.1 ± 3.5 Australian Rules football   8:17 ± 0:32   6:59 ± 0:26 1:09 ± 0:30 84.7 ± 6.5 Actigraphy
Richmond et al. [124] 19 M 24.1 ± 3.3 Australian Rules football     8:51 ± 0:06 0:42 ± 0:06 92.5 ± 1.3 Actigraphy
Robey et al. [125] 12 M 18.5 ± 1.4 Soccer    21 ± 11 7:13 ± 0:39 0:15 ± 0:11 89.4 ± 5.8 Actigraphy
Sargent et al. [64]b 7 M/F 22.5 ± 1.7 Swimming   7:42 ± 0:54 41 ± 43 5:24 ± 1:18   70.7 ± 15.1 Actigraphy
Sargent et al. [68] 70 M/F 20.3 ± 2.9 Australian Rules football, basketball, mountain bike, race walking, road cycling, swimming, triathlon   8:18 ± 1:18   6:30 ± 1:24   85.6 ± 7.2 Actigraphy
Schaal et al. [126] 10 F 20.4 ± 0.4 Synchronized swimming   8:32 ± 0:13 17 ± 2 7:13 ± 0:11   84.7 ± 1.3 Actigraphy
Shearer et al. [127] 28 M 24.4 ± 2.9 Rugby   8:49 ± 0:49 34 ± 40 7:04 ± 1:01 1:05 ± 0:39 79.0 ± 9.2 Actigraphy
Suppiah et al. [27]b 11 M 14.8 ± 0.9 Badminton, bowling   6:58 5 ± 8 6:07 ± 0:39 0:38 ± 0:16   Actigraphy
Suppiah et al. [17]b 29 M 14.7 ± 1.3 Track and field sprint, shooting   6:45 ± 0:29   5:28 ± 0:33 1:15 ± 0:23 80.9 ± 8.6 Actigraphy
Thornton et al. [85] 31 M 24.5 ± 3.9 Rugby   8:16 ± 1:13 21 ± 19 7:17 ± 01:07 0:42 ± 0:17 88.1 ± 4.2 Actigraphy
Thornton et al. [45] 14 M 26.1 ± 2.9 Rugby   7:29 ± 1:21   6:55 ± 1:14 0:35 ± 0:16 92.3 ± 3.0 Actigraphy
Van Ryswyk et al. [91] 19 M 23.7 ± 2.0 Australian Rules football   8:35 ± 0:48   7:07 ± 0:55   82.3 ± 6.5 Actigraphy
Miller et al. [46] 16 M   Australian Rules football   8:29 ± 1:19 18 ± 22 6:49 ± 1:13 1:10 ± 0:33 85.5 ± 5.7 Actigraphy
Miller et al. [46] 7 M   Soccer   8:02 ± 2:11 10 ± 15 6:42 ± 2:00 0:57 ± 0:24 85.5 ± 5.7 Actigraphy
Miller et al. [46] 28 M   Rugby   8:25 ± 1:41 9 ± 11 7:10 ± 1:34 0:56 ± 0:23 88.5 ± 4.2 Actigraphy
Dumortier et al. [3] 26 F 15.4 ± 3.7 Artistic gymnastics 25.0 to 32.3 9:44 ± 0:42 28 ± 12 9:03 ± 0:46 0:05 ± 0:05 93.0 ± 3.7 Sleep logs
Fullagar et al. [128] 15 M 25.5 ± 4.9 Soccer    20 ± 17 8:32 ± 1:11   91.6 ± 3.7 Sleep logs
Fullagar et al. [96]b 16 M 25.9 ± 7.5 Soccer    16 ± 7 8:44 ± 0:40 0:22 ± 0:39   Sleep logs
Knufinke et al. [89] 98 M/F 18.8 ± 3.0 Road cycling, triathlon, mountain bike, handball, volleyball, soccer 19.3 ± 5.1   20 ± 14 8:11 ± 0:44 0:13 ± 0:19   Sleep logs
  1. Values are means ± standard deviation
  2. EEG Electroencephalogram, F Female, M Male
  3. aSuspected sleep disorder based on questionnaire
  4. bWeek days or training days