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Table 2 Overview of studies comparing markerless with conventional motion analysis systems

From: A Review of the Evolution of Vision-Based Motion Analysis and the Integration of Advanced Computer Vision Methods Towards Developing a Markerless System

Publication Movement(s) analysed Markerless system description Procedure/system for comparison Number of cameras Outcome
Trewartha et al. [110] Starjump, somersaults Gen-locked video cameras (50 Hz), subject-specific model Manual digitising (TARGET system) 3 RMS differences for three movements ranged from 10 mm and 30 mm for pelvis location and between 2° and 8° for body configuration angles.
Corazza et al. [93] Walking Visual hull construction and a priori subject-specific model Virtual environment (Poser software) 16 RMS errors of hip, knee and ankle angles ranged from 2.0° (hip abduction/adduction) to 9.0 (ankle dorsi/plantar flexion)
Mündermann et al. [10] Walking Video cameras (75 Hz), visual hull construction and a priori subject-specific model Qualisys (120 Hz) 8 Average knee joint angle deviation: 2.3° (sagittal plane) and 1.6° (frontal plane).
Corazza et al. [86] Walking Video cameras (120 Hz), visual hull construction and a priori subject-specific model Qualisys (120 Hz) 8 Average deviations between joint (hip, knee, ankle, shoulder, elbow and wrist) centres: 15 mm mean absolute error (ranged from 9 to 19 mm)
Choppin and Wheat [72] Reaching, throwing, jumping Microsoft Kinect (30 Hz) Motion Analysis Corporation (60 Hz) 1 Kinect, 12 optoelectronic Flexion/extension and abduction/adduction of hip, knee, elbow and shoulder; shoulder plane and elevation studied. Maximum abduction error: 44.1° and 13.9°. Maximum flexion error: 36.2° and 19.5° (NITE and IPIsoft tracking algorithms, respectively)
Ceseracciu et al. [107] Walking BTS
(100 Hz)
(200 Hz)
8 Maximum RMS differences range: 11.0° (ankle dorsi/ plantar flexion) to 34.7° (hip internal/external rotation)
Sandau et al. [108] Walking Monochrome cameras (75 Hz), unconstrained articulated model fit to 3D point clouds (aided by full body patterned suit) Ariel Performance Analysis System 8 RMS differences in lower limb 3D angles ranged between 1.8° (hip abduction/adduction) and 4.9° (hip internal/external rotation)
Ong et al. [109] Walking and jogging Point Grey cameras (25 Hz) Motion Analysis Corporation (100 Hz) 2 markerless, 8 marker-based RMS differences ranged from 0.2° (knee abduction/adduction of jogging) to 1.0° (ankle dorsi/plantar flexion of walking). Significant differences between markerless and marker-based for the ankle joint angles.
  1. RMS root mean square