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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and comparisons of 2594 high school football athletes who sustained concussion in the early, mid, and late season

From: Initial symptom presentation after high school football-related concussion varies by time point in a season: an initial investigation

Mean (SD) or n (%) Early season (n = 418) Midseason (n = 2078) Late season (n = 98) Total (n = 2594) F/χ2 p value*
Demographic factors
 Age 15.25 (1.19) 15.31 (1.23) 15.76 (1.23) 15.3 (1.23) 6.97 0.001
 History of concussion 116 (27.8) 596 (28.7) 34 (35.4) 746 (28.8) 2.29 0.32
 Years playing at HS level 1.65 (1.90) 1.73 (1.96) 2.13 (2.40) 1.73 (1.97) 3.88 0.21
 Gender (male) 418 (100) 2074 (99.90) 98 (100) 2590 1.00 0.61
 Handedness (right) 350 (83.37) 1792 (86.23) 84 (85.71) 2226 (85.81) 2.81 0.59
 Country (USA) 418 (100) 2068 (99.50) 98 (100.00) 2584 (99.61) 2.49 0.65
 ADHD 58 (13.86) 282 (13.57) 12 (12.24) 352 (13.57) 0.20 0.91
 Learning disorder 36 (8.6) 196 (9.43) 10 (10.20) 242 (9.32) 0.33 0.85
 Days since injury 4.09 (1.69) 4.24 (1.68) 4.18 (1.73) 4.21 (1.68) 1.52 0.22
Treatment history
 Headaches 44 (10.50) 260 (12.90) 12 (12.80) 316 (12.18) 1.08 0.58
 Migraines 36 (9.10) 146 (7.30) 6 (6.40) 188 (7.24) 1.72 0.42
 Epilepsy/seizures 0 (0.00) 18 (0.90) 0 (0.00) 18 (0.69) 4.50 0.11
 Brain surgery 0 (0.00) 4 (0.20) 0 (0.00) 4 (0.15) 0.99 0.61
 Meningitis 2 (0.50) 14 (0.70) 2 (2.10) 18 (0.69) 2.81 0.25
 Alcohol/substance abuse 0 (0.00) 2 (0.10) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.07) 0.49 0.78
 Depression/anxiety 8 (2.00) 46 (2.30) 2 (2.10) 56 (2.15) 0.15 0.93
Baseline neurocognitive and symptom scores
 Verbal memory 81.73 (10.31) 82.78 (10.16) 83.08 (10.49) 82.62 (10.20) 6.69 0.001
 Visual memory 72.46 (12.95) 74.14 (12.83) 70.24 (13.90) 73.74 (12.83) 0.82 0.44
 Visual motor speed 34.72 (6.26) 35.19 (6.95) 35.00 (6.14) 35.11 (6.79) 1.05 0.35
 Reaction time 0.63 (0.09) 0.63 (0.09) 0.62 (0.08) 0.63 (0.09) 11.02 < 0.001
 Total symptom score 6.02 (10.60) 4.35 (7.95) 4.54 (8.37) 4.54 (8.37) 1.88 0.15
  1. Italics indicates selection of covariates to control for in outcome measure statistical modeling
  2. *p values of one-way ANOVAs (continuous variables) and chi-square analyses (χ2; binary and categorical variables) for comparison of those who sustained concussion in the early, mid, or late season
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