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Table 2 Frequency, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the different combinations of signs demonstrated during the study period

From: A video review of multiple concussion signs in National Rugby League match play

Combination of signs observed N (%) Sensitivity (95% CI) Specificity (95% CI) Positive predictive value (95% CI) Negative predictive value (95% CI)
Clutch/shake head + slow to get up 27 (17.3) 0.20 (0.12–0.28) 0.84 (0.80–0.90) 0.44 (0.27–0.63) 0.63 (0.59–0.67)
Clutch/shake head + slow to get up + vacant stare 21 (13.5) 0.13 (0.07–0.21) 0.87 (0.82–0.91) 0.38 (0.20–0.60) 0.62 (0.59–0.65)
Clutch/shake head + slow to get up + gait ataxia 17 (10.9) 0.10 (0.04–0.17) 0.89 (0.85–0.93) 0.35 (0.31–0.46) 0.61 (0.59–0.64)
Unresponsiveness + clutch/shake head + slow to get up + vacant stare + gait ataxia 15 (9.6) 0.10 (0.05–0.17) 0.91 (0.87–0.95) 0.40 (0.18–0.66) 0.62 (0.59–0.65)
Unresponsiveness + slow to get up + vacant stare + gait ataxia 14 (9.0) 0.07 (0.02–0.13) 0.90 (0.87–0.94) 0.29 (0.10–0.57) 0.61 (0.59–0.63)
Clutch/shake head + slow to get up + vacant stare + gait ataxia 14 (9.0) 0.07 (0.02–0.13) 0.90 (0.87–0.94) 0.29 (0.10–0.57) 0.61 (0.59–0.63)
Slow to get up + vacant stare + gait ataxia 12 (7.7) 0.07 (0.02–0.13) 0.92 (0.89–0.96) 0.33 (0.12–0.64) 0.61 (0.59–0.64)
Unresponsiveness + clutch/shake head + slow to get up + vacant stare 9 (5.8) 0.03 (0.01–0.09) 0.93 (0.91–0.96) 0.22 (0.04–0.59) 0.61 (0.59–0.63)
Unresponsiveness + slow to get up + gait ataxia 5 (3.2) 0.02 (0.00–0.06) 0.96 (0.95–0.98) 0.20 (0.01–0.70) 0.61 (0.60–0.63)
Slow to get up + vacant stare 4 (2.6) 0.02 (0.00–0.05) 0.97 (0.96–0.99) 0.25 (0.01–0.78) 0.61 (0.61–0.63)
Clutch/shake head + gait ataxia 3 (1.9) 0.05 (0.02–0.05) 1.00 (0.98–1.00) 1.00 (0.31–1.00) 0.63 (0.61–0.63)
Slow to get up + gait ataxia 3 (1.9) 0.02 (0.00–0.04) 0.98 (0.97–1.00) 0.33 (0.02–0.87) 0.61 (0.61–0.63)
Unresponsiveness + seizure + clutch/shake head + slow to get up + vacant stare + gait ataxia 3 (1.9) 0.02 (0.00–0.04) 0.98 (0.97–1.00) 0.33 (0.02–0.87) 0.61 (0.61–0.63)
Unresponsiveness + gait ataxia 2 (1.3) 0.02 (0.00–0.03) 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.50 (0.03–0.97) 0.62 (0.61–0.62)
Unresponsiveness + slow to get up + vacant stare 1 (0.6) 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 0.00 (0.00–0.95) 0.61 (0.61–0.62)
Unresponsiveness + clutch/shake head + slow to get up + gait ataxia 1 (0.6) 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 0.00 (0.00–0.95) 0.61 (0.61–0.62)
  1. Note: There were five incidences where “slow to get up” was the only observed sign