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Table 2 Metabolites differentiating between moderate- and high-endurance athletes (Bonferroni significance)

From: A pilot study comparing the metabolic profiles of elite-level athletes from different sporting disciplines

Metabolite Sub-pathway Fold change Bonferroni p value
1-stearoyl-GPC (18:0) Lysolipid − 0.15595 1.72E-05
Vanillylmandelate (VMA) Phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism 0.415133 2.29E-05
21-hydroxypregnenolone disulfate Steroid 0.365863 0.000107398
Palmitoyl-linoleoyl-glycerol (16:0/18:2) [2]* Diacylglycerol − 0.46764 0.000130998
Tartronate (hydroxymalonate)   0.290077 0.000657114
Palmitoyl-linoleoyl-glycerol (16:0/18:2) [1]* Diacylglycerol − 0.42202 0.00090176
1-palmitoleoyl-GPC (16:1)* Lysolipid − 0.22642 0.001172265
Cortisone Steroid 0.395892 0.001489996
Citrate TCA cycle 0.200056 0.001784274
Succinimide Polyamine metabolism 0.279317 0.002636335
Stearoylcarnitine (C18) Fatty acid metabolism (acyl carnitine) − 0.28394 0.002953686
Trans-4-hydroxyproline Urea cycle; arginine and proline metabolism − 0.27783 0.00295413
4-guanidinobutanoate Polyamine metabolism − 0.44969 0.003796483
Dihomo-linoleoylcarnitine (C20:2)* Fatty acid metabolism (acyl carnitine) −0.33166 0.005028391
1-(1-enyl-palmitoyl)-2-oleoyl-GPC (P-16:0/18:1)* Plasmalogen 0.145176 0.005178692
1-palmitoyl-GPC (16:0) Lysolipid − 0.11595 0.005429078
Linoleoyl-linoleoyl-glycerol (18:2/18:2) [1]* Diacylglycerol − 0.54301 0.005827373
Gamma-glutamylglutamate Gamma-glutamyl amino acid − 0.42069 0.006242208
Pregnanediol-3-glucuronide Steroid 0.44061 0.006441558
Palmitoyl-arachidonoyl-glycerol (16:0/20:4) [2]* Diacylglycerol − 0.47247 0.008366458
1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-GPC (16:0/18:0) Phospholipid metabolism − 0.1648 0.009358338
Cortisol Steroid 0.471022 0.009967366
Linoleoyl-linolenoyl-glycerol (18:2/18:3) [2]* Diacylglycerol − 0.53635 0.012030273
Homoarginine Urea cycle; arginine and proline metabolism − 0.22816 0.013313047
Palmitoleoyl-linoleoyl-glycerol (16:1/18:2) [1]* Diacylglycerol − 0.42989 0.015554355
Lactosyl-N-palmitoyl-sphingosine (d18:1/16:0) Sphingolipid metabolism 0.131658 0.017917489
3-hydroxydecanoate Fatty acid, monohydroxy 0.346756 0.018411909
Pregnenolone sulfate Steroid 0.332031 0.01854452
Pregnenolone steroid monosulfate* Steroid 0.292548 0.024089561
Leukotriene B4 Eicosanoid − 0.84063 0.027085708
Vanillactate Phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism 0.214757 0.028124765
12-HETE Eicosanoid − 0.63302 0.028449419
Acetylcarnitine (C2) Fatty acid metabolism (acyl carnitine) 0.337317 0.033107027
N1-methyladenosine Purine metabolism, adenine containing 0.121048 0.036870759
Isovalerate Leucine, isoleucine and valine metabolism − 0.52129 0.039358891
5-hydroxylysine Lysine metabolism − 0.39575 0.040606024
1,3,7-trimethylurate Xanthine metabolism 0.671617 0.045828468
Fructose Fructose, mannose and galactose metabolism 0.391699 0.053677595
  1. Asterisks (*) indicated on IDs of some metabolites refer to compounds that have not been officially confirmed based on a standard, but their identities are known with confidence