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Table 5 Mean and SD of salivary cortisol rhythm

From: Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis Functioning in Overtraining Syndrome: Findings from Endocrine and Metabolic Responses on Overtraining Syndrome (EROS)—EROS-HPA Axis

Salivary cortisol (ng/dL) OTS athletes (OTS) (n = 14) Healthy athletes (ATL) (n = 25) Non-active subjects (NCS) (n = 12)
Awakening 329 (± 222) 337 (± 131) 266 (± 149)
30′ after awakening 324*** (± 116) 500& (± 168) 393 (± 149)
4 PM 166 (± 113) 144 (± 83) 130 (± 57)
11 PM 94 (± 39) 95 (± 38) 83 (± 11)
Cortisol awakening response (CAR) % 32.4 62.2 79.08
  1. Differences between OTS and ATL: ***p < 0.005;
  2. Differences between ATL and NCS: & p < 0.05
  3. SD standard deviation